Skip to main content
  • 2003 Accesses

Abstract

Diffusion occurs as a result of the constant movement of water molecules. Water makes up 60–80% of our body weight. The heat associated with our body temperature energizes the water molecules, causing them to “jerk” around randomly. This phenomenon is called “ Brownian motion” after the scientist who first described it [1, 2]. It can be demonstrated by adding a few drops of ink to a still bucket of water. Initially, the ink will be concentrated in a very small volume, but it will quickly spread out (diffuse) and mix with the rest of the water. The speed of this process of diffusion gives physicists a measure of the property of water. Similarly, if we could put some “magic ink” into the brain tissue and follow its progress, we would gain knowledge about the brain tissue itself, as well as the kind of changes that may occur in the brain when it is affected by various disease processes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Brown R(1928) A brief account of microscopical observations made in the months of June, July, and August, 1827, on the particles contained in the pollen of plants; and on the general existence of active molecules in organic and inorganic bodies. Phil Mag 4:161–173

    Google Scholar 

  2. Doob JL (1942) The Brownian movement and stochastic equations. Ann Math 43:351–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Stejeskal EO, Tanner JE (1965) Spin diffusion measurements: spin echoes in the presence of time-dependent field gradient. J Chem Phys 42:288–292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Le Bihan D, Breton E, Lallemand D, Grenier P, Cabanis E, Laval-Jeantet M (1986) MR imaging of intravoxel incoherent motions: application to diffusion and perfusion in neurologic disorders. Radiology Nov; 161(2):401–407

    Google Scholar 

  5. Moseley ME, Kucharczyk J, Mintorovitch J (1990) Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of acute stroke: correlation with T2-weighted and magnetic susceptibility-enhanced MR imaging in cats. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 11:423

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Moonen CT, Pekar J, Vleeschouwer de MHM, Gelderen van P, Zijl van PCM, DesPres D (1991) Restricted and anisotropic displacement of water in healthy cat brain and in stroke studied by NMR diffusion imaging. Magn Reson Med 19:327

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Zhong J, Petroff OAC, Prichard JW, Gore JC (1993) Changes in water diffusion and relaxation properties of rat cerebrum during status epilepticus. Magn Reson Med 30:241

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Basser PJ, Mattiello J, Le Bihan D (1994) Estimation of the effective self-diffusion tensor from the NMR spin-echo. J Magn Reson 103:247–254

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Le Bihan D, Van Zijl P (2002) From the diffusion coefficient to the diffusion tensor. NMR Biomed Nov–Dec; 15(7–8):431–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Clark CA, Le Bihan D (2000) Water diffusion compartmentation and anisotropy at high b values in the human brain. Magn Reson Med Dec; 44(6):852–859

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2009 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Zhong, J. (2009). Basics of Diffusion Measurements by MRI. In: Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of the Brain. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78785-3_1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78785-3_1

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-540-78784-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-540-78785-3

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics