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Fever in Common Infectious Diseases

  • #x203A; Infection of the respiratory tract is the most common reason for seeking medical advice and hospital admission in children. A viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is the most common infection of the respiratory tract.

  • › In developing countries, acute respiratory infection remains a leading cause of childhood mortality, causing an estimated 1.5–2 million deaths annually in children younger than 5 years of age.

  • › In developed countries, viruses are responsible for most upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including pharyngitis and pneumonia.

  • › Although the degree of fever cannot differentiate between viral and bacterial diseases, high fever is associated with a greater incidence of serious bacterial diseases such as pneumonia or meningitis.

  • › Worldwide, diarrheal disease is the leading cause of childhood deaths under 5 years of age.

  • › If the fever does not have an evident source, urinary tract infection (UTI) should be considered, particularly if the fever is greater than 39.0°C and persists for longer than 24–48 h.

  • › Widespread vaccinations against bacteria causing meningitis, such as Hib, and vaccines against meningococci and pneumococci have dramatically reduced the incidence of meningitis.

  • › A child with fever and nonblanching rash should be promptly evaluated to exclude meningococcal diseases.

  • › Young children with malaria may present with irregular fever and not with typical paroxysms of fever, occurring particularly in early falciparum infection or as a consequence of previous chemoprophylaxis, which modifies the typical pattern of fever.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Urinary Tract Infection Respiratory Syncytial Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Bacterial Meningitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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