Fever in Common Infectious Diseases
#x203A; Infection of the respiratory tract is the most common reason for seeking medical advice and hospital admission in children. A viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is the most common infection of the respiratory tract.
› In developing countries, acute respiratory infection remains a leading cause of childhood mortality, causing an estimated 1.5–2 million deaths annually in children younger than 5 years of age.
› In developed countries, viruses are responsible for most upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including pharyngitis and pneumonia.
› Although the degree of fever cannot differentiate between viral and bacterial diseases, high fever is associated with a greater incidence of serious bacterial diseases such as pneumonia or meningitis.
› Worldwide, diarrheal disease is the leading cause of childhood deaths under 5 years of age.
› If the fever does not have an evident source, urinary tract infection (UTI) should be considered, particularly if the fever is greater than 39.0°C and persists for longer than 24–48 h.
› Widespread vaccinations against bacteria causing meningitis, such as Hib, and vaccines against meningococci and pneumococci have dramatically reduced the incidence of meningitis.
› A child with fever and nonblanching rash should be promptly evaluated to exclude meningococcal diseases.
› Young children with malaria may present with irregular fever and not with typical paroxysms of fever, occurring particularly in early falciparum infection or as a consequence of previous chemoprophylaxis, which modifies the typical pattern of fever.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Urinary Tract Infection Respiratory Syncytial Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Bacterial Meningitis
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