A Context-Based Framework and Method for Learning Object Description and Search
For the last decade, E-Learning has become an active research area. Many companies and organisations are now providing large amounts of online learning resources. These learning resources have covered most common education and learning areas and subjects and are always available so that the learners can access them from anywhere which has an Internet connection. Learners can flexibly choose the subjects they want and build up their own curriculum and study schedule. However, most of the online learning resources are poorly described and structured so causing huge problems in their use, search, organization, and management. To overcome the problems, we propose a novel and practical context-based semantic description framework which aims to describe information and knowledge about learning resources and their structures. Context-based semantic description is an effective way to extract knowledge from various aspects to depicting learning resources which are abstracted and termed as "Learning Objects". This framework consists of four parts: the definition of Learning Objects, a Context-based Semantic Description Model, an ontology, and learning concept dependency graphs. By using the Learning Object’s attributes and their various semantic relationships addressed in the proposed framework, we attempt to search and match a learner’s requirements against the description of Learning Objects provided by the framework with the help of knowledge from learning environments. A key step here is to compute semantic similarity using the modelled knowledge. The proposed work aims to support learners in using massive learning resources from the web to perform self-learning with or without the help of educators’ advice and instruction.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Andrews, K., Nedoumov, A., Scherbakov, N.: Embeding Courswere into Internet: Problems and Solutions. In: Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 1995, Graz, Austria, June 1995, pp. 69–74 (1995)Google Scholar
- 2.Biezunski, M., Bryan, M., Newcomb, S.R.: ISO/IEC 13250:2000 Topic Maps, (December 3, 1999), http://www.y12.doe.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0129.pdf
- 3.Colucci, S., Noia, T.D., Sciascio, E.D., Donini, F.M., Ragone, A.: Semantic-Based Automated Composition of Distributed Learning Objects for Personalized E-Learning. In: Gómez-Pérez, A., Euzenat, J. (eds.) ESWC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3532, pp. 633–648. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
- 4.Dichev, C., Dicheva, D., Aroyo, L.: Using Topic Maps for E-learning. In: Proceedings of The IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education (CATE 2003), Rhodes, Greece (2003)Google Scholar
- 5.Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1: Reference Description. http://dublincore.org/documents/1999/07/02/dces/
- 6.Frakes, W.B., Baeza-Yates, R.: Information Retrieval: Data Structures & Algorithms. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1992)Google Scholar
- 7.Galusha, J.M. : Barriers to Learning in Distance Education. Interpersonal Computing and Technology, December, 1997, vol. 5(3–4), pp. 6–14 (1997)Google Scholar
- 8.Guha, R., McCool, R., Fikes, R.: Contexts for the Semantic Web. In: McIlraith, S.A., Plexousakis, D., van Harmelen, F. (eds.) ISWC 2004. LNCS, vol. 3298, pp. 32–46. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
- 9.IEEE Standard for Learning Object Metadata, STD 1484.12.1-2002 edition (2002)Google Scholar
- 11.Palmér, M., Naeve, A., Nilsson, M.: E-learning in the Semantic Age. In: Proceedings of the 2nd European Web-based Learning Environments Conference (WBLE 2001), Lund, Sweden, October 24-26, 2001 (2001)Google Scholar
- 12.Sharable Content Object Reference Model, http://www.adlnet.gov/scorm/index.cfm
- 16.The Writing Committee of CCIT, Computing Curricula 2005, Information Technology Volume, IEEE-CS/ACM, (April 2005)Google Scholar
- 17.Zhang, J., Li, X.: The Model, Architecture and Mechanism Behind Realcourse. In: Cao, J., Yang, L.T., Guo, M., Lau, F. (eds.) ISPA 2004. LNCS, vol. 3358, Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar