Advertisement

A Semi-blind Watermarking Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform

  • Chin-Chen Chang
  • Yung-Chen Chou
  • Tzu-Chuen Lu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4861)

Abstract

This paper proposed a robust watermarking scheme based on discrete wavelet transform to hide a grayscale watermark in a digital image for image authentication. The proposed scheme employed toral automorphism to scramble the host image and the watermark so as to enhance the security and fidelity of the embedded watermark. Later, the permuted watermark and the permuted host image were transformed by discrete wavelet transform. Next, the transformed watermark was concealed in the low frequency coefficient of the transformed image by using the concept of codebook matching. Simulation results showed that the required extra storage of the proposed scheme for extracting the watermark was lower than that of Lu et al.’s scheme. In addition, the extracted watermark image quality of the proposed methods was better than that of Shieh et al.’s scheme. According to the experimental results, the proposed scheme indeed outperformed Shieh et al.’s and Lu et al.’s schemes. Moreover, the proposed scheme was robust to various attacks, such as JPEG compression, Gaussian blurred, sharpening, cropping, brightness, contrast enhancement, rotation, and so on.

Keywords

Digital Watermark discrete wavelet transformation semi-blind watermarking toral automorphism 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chang, C.C., Hu, Y.S., Lu, T.C.: A Watermarking-Based Image Ownership and Tampering Authentication Scheme. Pattern Recognition Letters 27, 439–446 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chang, C.C., Tsai, P.Y., Lin, M.H.: SVD-based Digital Image Watermarking Scheme. Pattern Recognition Letters 26(10), 1577–1586 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang, C.C., Wu, W.C., Hu, Y.C.: Public-Key Inter-Block Dependence Fragile Watermarking for Image Authentication Using Continued Fraction. Informatica 28, 147–152 (2004)MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cox, I.J., Kilian, J., Leighton, F.T., Shamoon, T.: Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 6(12), 1673–1687 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Licks, V., Jordan, R.: On Digital Image Watermarking Robust to Geometric Transformation. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 3, pp. 690–693 (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lin, C.Y., Wu, M., Bloom, J.A., Cox, I.J., Miller, M.L., Lui, Y.M.: Rotation, Scale, and Translation Resilient Watermarking for Images. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 10, 767–782 (2001)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Linde, Y., Buzo, A., Gray, R.M.: An Algorithm for Vector Quantizer Design. IEEE Transactions on Communications 28, 84–95 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lu, C.S., Huang, S.K., Sze, C.J., Liao, H.Y.: A New Watermarking Technique for Multimedia Protection, Multimedia Image and Video Processing, Chap. 18, pp. 507–530. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lu, C.S., Huang, S.K., Sze, C.J., Liao, H.Y.: Cocktail Watermarking for Digital Image Protection. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 2(4), 209–224 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shieh, J.M., Lou, D.C., Chang, M.C.: A Semi-blind Digital Watermarking Scheme Based on Singular Value Decomposition. Computer Standards & Interfaces 28(4), 428–440 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Solachidis, V., Pitas, I.: Circularly Symmetric Watermark Embedding in 2-D DFT Domain. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 10, 1741–1753 (2001)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stankovic, S., Djurovic, I., Pitas, I.: Watermarking in the Space/Spatial-Frequency Domain Using Two-Dimensional Radon-Wigner Distribution. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 10, 650–658 (2001)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Voyatzis, G., Pitas, I.: Digital Image Watermarking Using Mixing Systems. Computers & Graphics 22(4), 405–416 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Voyatzis, G., Pitas, I.: Applications of Toral Automorphisms in Image Watermarking. In: IEEE Conference on Image Processing, pp. 237–240 (1996)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chin-Chen Chang
    • 1
  • Yung-Chen Chou
    • 2
  • Tzu-Chuen Lu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724Taiwan
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 62102Taiwan
  3. 3.Department of Information Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung41349Taiwan

Personalised recommendations