Audio Watermarking Algorithm Based on Centroid and Statistical Features

  • Xiaoming Zhang
  • Xiong Yin
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4861)


Experimental testing shows that the relative relation in the number of samples among the neighboring bins and the audio frequency centroid are two robust features to the Time Scale Modification (TSM) attacks. Accordingly, an audio watermark algorithm based on frequency centroid and histogram is proposed by modifying the frequency coefficients. The audio histogram with equal-sized bins is extracted from a selected frequency coefficient range referred to the audio centroid. The watermarked audio signal is perceptibly similar to the original one. The experimental results show that the algorithm is very robust to resample TSM and a variety of common attacks. Subjective quality evaluation of the algorithm shows that embedded watermark introduces low, inaudible distortion of host audio signal.


Audio watermarking FFT Centroid Histogram TSM 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoming Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiong Yin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Information Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617China
  2. 2.College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029China

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