Embedded Persuasive Strategies to Obtain Visitors’ Data: Comparing Reward and Reciprocity in an Amateur, Knowledge-Based Website

  • Luciano Gamberini
  • Giovanni Petrucci
  • Andrea Spoto
  • Anna Spagnolli
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4744)

Abstract

This study compares the relative effectiveness of two different persuasive strategies embedded in the rationale of a website. The visitor is asked for his/her contact information either prior to or after having access to the guidelines for managing multimedia files offered by the site. Asking for personal data prior to access represents a reward strategy for obtaining such data. In contrast, asking for personal data after access represents a reciprocity strategy. In addition, the mediating effect of website features displaying “social proof” (such as visits counter) is explored. The analysis of the amount and type of contact information provided shows that a persuasive strategy based on reciprocity is more effective than one based on reward. Also, the presence of social proof features seems counterproductive when using a reciprocity strategy, while it seems to improve the visitors’ compliance with the request when using a reward strategy. The results are discussed in terms of adequacy of the persuasive strategy to the specific website genre.

Keywords

reciprocity reward persuasion personal information social proof websites 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Norman, D.A.: The Psychology of Everyday Things. Basic Books, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Spagnolli, A., Varotto, D., Mantovani, G.: An Ethnographic, Action-Based Approach to Human Experience in Virtual Environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59(6), 797–822 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bourdieu, P.: Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1977)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fogg, B.J.: Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baumer, D.L., Earp, J.B., Evers, P.S.: Tit for That in Cyberspace: Consumer and Website Responses to Anarchy in the Market for Personal Information. North Carolina Journal of Law and Technology 4(2), 217–274 (2003), http://www.jolt.unc.edu/vol4I2/pdf/v4I2-baumer.pdf Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cavusoglu, H., Mishra, B., Raghunathan, S.: The Effect of Internet Security Breach Announcements on Market Value: Capital Market Reactions for Breached Firms and Internet Security Developers. International Journal of Electronic Commerce 9(1), 69 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoffman, D.L., Novak, T.P., Peralta, M.: Building Con Trust On-Line. Communications of the ACM 42(4), 80–85 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andrade, E., Kaltcheva, V., Weitz, B.: Self-Disclosure on the Web: The Impact of Privacy Policy, Reward and Brand Reputation. Advances in Consumer Research 29, 350–353 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Teo, H.H., Wan, W., Li, L.: Volunteering Personal Information on the Internet: Effects of Reputation, Privacy Initiatives, and Reward on Online Consumer Behavior. In: Teo, H.H. (ed.) Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2004) (retrived on April 5, 2006), http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/2004/2056/07/205670181c.pdf
  10. 10.
    Kivetz, R.: Promotion Reactance: The Role of Effort-Reward Congruity. Journal of Consumer Research 31, 725–736 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lindskold, S.: Trust Development, the GRIT Proposal and the Effects of Conciliatory Acts on Conflict and Cooperation. Psychological Bulletin 85, 772–793 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith, E.R., Mackie, D.M.: Social Psychology. Taylor and Francis, London (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cialdini, R.B., Vincent, J.E., Lewis, S.K., Catalan, J., Wheeler, D., Darby, B.L.: Reciprocal Concessions Procedure for Inducing Compliance: The Door in the Face Technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31, 206–215 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sherry, J.F.: Gift Giving in Anthropological Perspective. The Journal of Consumer Research 10(2), 157–168 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carr, C.L.: Reciprocity: The Golden Rule of IS-User Service Relationship Quality and Cooperation. Communications of the ACM 49(6), 77–83 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fogg, B., Nass, C.: How Users Reciprocate To Computers: An Experiment That Demonstrates Behavior Change. In: CHI 1997 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Looking To the Future, Atlanta, Georgia, March 22 – 27, pp. 331–332. ACM Press, New York (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cialdini, R.: Influence: Science and Practice. Harper Collins, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fogg, B.J., Marshall, J., Kameda, T., Solomon, J., Rangnekar, A., Boyd, J., Brown, B.: Web Credibility Research: A Method for Online Experiments and Early Study Results. In: Proceedings of CHI 2001, Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing, pp. 295–296 (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fogg, B.J.: Credibility and Computing Technology. Communications of the ACM 42(5), 39–44 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hemetsberger, A.: Fostering Cooperation on the Internet: Social Exchange Processes in Innovative Virtual Consumer Communities. In: Broniarczyk, S.M., Nakamoto, K. (eds.) Advances in Consumer Research, 29th edn., pp. 354–356 (2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nemeth, C.: Bargaining and Reciprocity. Psychological Bulletin 75(5), 297–308 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moon, Y.: Intimate Exchanges: Using Computers to Elicit Self-Disclosure from Consumers. Journal of Consumer Research 26, 323–339 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gouldner, A.W.: The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement. American Sociological Review 25, 161–178 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciano Gamberini
    • 1
  • Giovanni Petrucci
    • 1
  • Andrea Spoto
    • 1
  • Anna Spagnolli
    • 1
  1. 1.HTLab, Dept. of General Psychology, University of Padova, via Venezia 8, 35131 PadovaItaly

Personalised recommendations