Congenital Malformations of the Brain and Skull



Congenital brain malformations occur as a result of embryogenesis impairment and present as an anatomic defect or destructive brain lesion (Arendt 1968; Barkovich 2000; DeMyer 1971; Glenn and Barkovich 2006; Harwood-Nash et al. 1976; Polianker et al 1965; van der Knaap et al. 2006). It is very difficult to make a diagnosis of congenital brain malformation, based on clinical findings, and use of CT and MRI is essential in these cases. A child may have numerous brain malformations, frequently accompanied by congenital abnormalities of other organs and systems due to chromosomal balance impairment or noxious exposures during embryogenesis. Exogenous factors as well as hypoxia cause developmental defects of neural tissue, and focal and diffuse brain damage. CT and MRI allow distinguishing of changes that have occurred due to chromosomal abnormalities and due to noxious exogenous factors. There are several classifications of congenital brain malformations (DeMyer 1971; van der Knapp et al. 1988; Kornienko et al. 1993); however, there is a lack of united classification based on aetiology, pathogenesis and clinical findings at present.


Corpus Callosum Lateral Ventricle Fourth Ventricle Tuberous Sclerosis Arachnoid Cyst 
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