Eye Monitoring Applications in Medicine

  • M. Stella Atkins
  • Marios Nicolaou
  • Guang-Zhong Yang
Part of the Signals and Commmunication Technologies book series (SCT)


Eye trackers have been used for medical image perception in radiology since the 1960s, with pioneering work by Harold Kundel and Dr. Calvin Nodine from the Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia [348, 457]. Initial studies involved radiologists viewing 2D X-ray images of the chest or breast on photographic film displayed on large “light boxes”. The aim of these early studies was to evaluate the use of image processing techniques, such as edge enhancement, to improve the visibility of lung tumours and hence reduce the error rates [351]. In order to make their experiments rigorous, Kundel and Nodine developed the technique of synthesising nodules photographically on otherwise normal chest images. The eye monitoring data provided understanding of the visual search process [346] and why errors occurred [349, 457]. These projects are motivated by the aim to provide eye-gaze driven decision support systems [123, 350, 456].


Visual Search Minimally Invasive Surgery Cognitive Error Decision Error Perceptual Error 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Stella Atkins
    • 1
  • Marios Nicolaou
    • 2
  • Guang-Zhong Yang
    • 3
  1. 1.Simon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  2. 2.Royal College of SurgeonsLondonUK
  3. 3.Institute of Biomedical EngineeringImperial College LondonLondonUK

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