Fuzzy Similarity of Facial Expressions of Embodied Agents

  • Radosław Niewiadomski
  • Catherine Pelachaud
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4722)

Abstract

In this paper we propose an algorithm based on fuzzy similarity which models the concept of resemblance between facial expressions of an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA). The algorithm measures the degree of visual resemblance between any two facial expressions. We also present an evaluation study in which we compared the users’ perception of similarity of facial expressions. Finally we describe an application of this algorithm to generate complex facial expressions of an ECA.

Keywords

Embodied Conversational Agents facial expressions fuzzy similarity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Albrecht, I., Schröder, M., Haber, J., Seidel, H.: Mixed feelings: expression of non-basic emotions in a muscle-based talking head. Virtual Reality 8(4), 201–212 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bartneck, C., Reichenbach, J.: Subtle emotional expressions of synthetic characters, International. Journal Human-Computer Studies 62(2), 179–192 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bassili, J.N.: Emotion recognition: the role of facial movement and the relative importance of upper and lower areas of the face. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37(11), 2049–2058 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bevacqua, E., Mancini, M., Niewiadomski, R., Pelachaud, C.: An expressive ECA showing complex emotions. In: Proceedings of the AISB Annual Convention, Newcastle, UK, pp. 208–216 (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bouchon-Meunier, B., Rifqi, M., Bothorel, S.: Towards general measures of comparison of objects. Fuzzy sets and systems 84(2), 143–153 (1996)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Constantini, E., Pianesi, F., Prete, M.: Recognizing Emotions in Human and Synthetic Faces: The Role of the Upper and Lower Parts of the Face. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, San Diego, California, USA, pp. 20–27 (January 10-13, 2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ekman, P.: The Face Revealed. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ekman, P.: Darwin, deception, and facial expression. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1000, 205–221 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: The Repertoire of Nonverbal Behavior’s. Categories, Origins, Usage and Coding, Semiotica 1, 49–98 (1969)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Unmasking the Face. A guide to recognizing emotions from facial clues. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1975)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Etcoff, N., Magee, J.: Categorical perception of facial expressions. Cognition 44(3), 227–240 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frank, M.G., Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Behavioral Markers and Recognizability of the Smile of Enjoyment. In: Ekman, P., Rosenberg, E.L. (eds.) What the Face Reveals: Basic and Applied Studies of Spontaneous Expression Using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), Oxford University Press, Oxford (1995)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gonzaga, G.C., Keltner, D., Londahl, E.A., Smith, M.D.: Love and commitment problem in romantic relation and friendship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81(2), 247–262 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gosselin, P., Kirouac, G., Doré, F.Y.: Components and Recognition of Facial Expression in the Communication of Emotion by Actors. In: Ekman, P., Rosenberg, E.L. (eds.) What the Face Reveals: Basic and Applied Studies of Spontaneous Expression Using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), pp. 243–267. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1995)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Haidt, J., Keltner, D.: Culture and facial expression: Open-ended methods find more expressions and a gradient of recognition. Cognition and Emotion 13(3), 225–266 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Izard, C.E.: Human emotion. Plenum Press, New York (1977)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kätsyri, J., Klucharev, V., Frydrych, M., Sams, M.: Identification of synthetic and natural emotional facial expressions. In: AVSP 2003. ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop on Audio Visual Speech Processing, St. Jorioz, France, pp. 239–244 (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Keltner, D.: Signs of appeasement: Evidence for the distinct displays of embarrassment, amusement, and shame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68, 441–454 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Matsumoto, D.: More evidence for the universality of a contempt expression. Motivation and Emotion 16(4), 363–368 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Niewiadomski, R.: A model of complex facial expressions in interpersonal relations for animated agents, Ph.D. thesis, University of Perugia (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ostermann, J.: Face Animation in MPEG-4. In: Pandzic, I.S., Forchheimer, R. (eds.) MPEG-4 Facial Animation - The Standard Implementation and Applications, pp. 17–55. Wiley, England (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Poggi, I.: Interacting bodies and interacting minds. In: 2nd lInternational Society for Gesture Studies (ISGS) Conference Interacting Bodies, Lyon, pp. 15–18 (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rifqi, M.: Mesures de comparaison, typicalité et classification d’objets flous: théorie et pratique, Ph.D Thesis (1996)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scozzafava, R., Vantaggi, B. (eds.): Fuzzy Relations in a Coherent Conditional Probability Setting, 7th International Conference on Information and Management Sciences (IMS), Chengdu, China, pp. 496–500 (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
    Tsapatsoulis, N., Raouzaiou, A., Kollias, S., Crowie, R., Douglas-Cowie, E.: Emotion Recognition and Synthesis Based on MPEG-4 FAPs. In: Pandzic, I., Forchheimer, R. (eds.) MPEG-4 Facial Animation - The standard, implementations, applications, John Wiley & Sons, UK (2002)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Young, A.W., Rowland, D., Calder, A.J., Etcoff, N.L., Seth, A., Perrett, D.I.: Facial expression megamix: tests of dimensional and category accounts of emotion recognition. Cognition 63(3), 271–313 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radosław Niewiadomski
    • 1
  • Catherine Pelachaud
    • 1
  1. 1.IUT de Monreuil, Université Paris 8France

Personalised recommendations