Emotionally Expressive Head and Body Movement During Gaze Shifts

  • Brent Lance
  • Stacy C. Marsella
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4722)

Abstract

The current state of the art virtual characters fall far short of characters produced by skilled animators. One reason for this is that the physical behaviors of virtual characters do not express the emotions and attitudes of the character adequately. A key deficiency possessed by virtual characters is that their gaze behavior is not emotionally expressive. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through head movement and body posture during gaze shifts, with intent to integrate a model of emotionally expressive eye movement into this work in the future. The paper further describes an evaluation showing that users can recognize the emotional states generated by the model.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Amaya, K., Bruderlin, A., Calvert, T.: Emotion From Motion. In: Proceedings of the 1996 Conference on Graphical Interface, pp. 222–229 (1996)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Argyle, M., Cook, M.: Gaze and Mutual Gaze. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1976)Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Bickmore, T., Cassell, J.: Social Dialogue with Embodied Conversational Agents. In: Bernsen, N. (ed.) Natural, Intelligent and Effective Interaction with Multimodal Dialogue Systems, pp. 23–54. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (2004)Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Brand, M., Hertzmann, A.: Style Machines. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, ACM Press, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Carney, D.: Beliefs About the Nonverbal Expression of Social Power. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 29(2), 105–123 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Coulson, M.: Attributing Emotion to Static Body Postures: Recognition Accuracy, Confusions, and Viewpoint Dependence. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 28(2) (2004)Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Exline, R.: Visual Interaction: The Glances of Power and Preference. In: Weitz, S. (ed.) Nonverbal Communication: Readings with Commentary, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1974)Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Foley, J., van Dam, A., Feiner, S., Hughes, J.: Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Redwood City,CA, USA (1997)Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Gebhard, P.: ALMA: A Layered Model of Affect. In: Proceedings of AAMAS, ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Kendon, A.: Some Functions of Gaze Direction in Two-Person Conversation. In: Kendon, A. (ed.) Conducting Interaction: Patterns of Behavior in Focused Encounters (1990)Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Kim, Y., Hill, Jr., R., Traun, D.: A Computational Model of Dynamic Perceptual Attention for Virtual Humans. In: Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (May 2005)Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Kleinke, C.: Gaze and Eye Contact: A Research Review. Psychological Bulletin v 100(1), 78–100 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Lance, B., Marsella, S., Koizumi, D.: Towards Expressive Gaze Manner in Embodied Virtual Agents (2004)Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Lee, S., Badler, J., Badler, N.: Eyes Alive. ACM Transactions on Graphics 21(3), 637–644 (2002)Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Liu, C.K., Hertzmann, A., Popović, Z.: Learning Physics-Based Motion Style with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Marsella, S., Gratch, J., Rickel, J.: Expressive Behaviors for Virtual Worlds. In: Prendinger, H., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) Life-Like Characters. Tools, Affective Functions, and Applications, Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Mehrabian, A.: Silent Messages: Implicit Communication of Emotions and Attitudes, 2nd edn. Wadsworth Publishing Company (1981)Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Mignault, A., Chaudhuri, A.: The Many Faces of a Neutral Face: Head Tilt and Perception of Dominance and Emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 27(2) (Summer 2003)Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Paterson, H., Pollick, F., Sanford, A.: The Role of Velocity in Affect Discrimination. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (2001)Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Pelachaud, C., Bilvi, M.: Modelling Gaze Behavior for Conversational Agents. In: Rist, T., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Rickel, J. (eds.) IVA 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2792, pp. 93–100. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Rickel, J., Johnson, W.L.: Animated Agents for Procedural Training in Virtual Reality: Perception, Cognition, and Motor Control. Applied Artificial Intelligence 13(4-5), 343–382 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Sobczynski, P.: Polar Express, The (November 2004), http://www.efilmcritic.com/review.php?movie=10918&reviewer=389
  23. [23]
    Thomas, F., Johnston, O.: The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. Walt Disney Productions (1981)Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Witkin, A., Popovic, Z.: Motion Warping. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, ACM Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Zhao, L., Badler, N.: Acquiring and Validating Motion Qualities from Live Limb Gestures. Graphical Models 67(1), 1–16 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brent Lance
    • 1
  • Stacy C. Marsella
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute, 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001, Marina Del Rey, CA 90292 

Personalised recommendations