The Behavior Markup Language: Recent Developments and Challenges

  • Hannes Vilhjálmsson
  • Nathan Cantelmo
  • Justine Cassell
  • Nicolas E. Chafai
  • Michael Kipp
  • Stefan Kopp
  • Maurizio Mancini
  • Stacy Marsella
  • Andrew N. Marshall
  • Catherine Pelachaud
  • Zsofi Ruttkay
  • Kristinn R. Thórisson
  • Herwin van Welbergen
  • Rick J. van der Werf
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4722)

Abstract

Since the beginning of the SAIBA effort to unify key interfaces in the multi-modal behavior generation process, the Behavior Markup Language (BML) has both gained ground as an important component in many projects worldwide, and continues to undergo further refinement. This paper reports on the progress made in the last year in further developing BML. It discusses some of the key challenges identified that the effort is facing, and reviews a number of projects that already are making use of BML or support its use.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjalmsson, H., Bickmore, T.: BEAT: the Behavior Expression Animation Toolkit. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, August 12-17, pp. 477–486 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chafai, N.E., Pelachaud, C., Pelé, D.: A semantic description of gesture in BML. In: Proceedings of AISB 2007 Annual Convention Workshop on Language, Speech and Gesture for Expressive Characters, Newcastle, UK (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hartmann, B., Mancini, M., Pelachaud, C.: Design and evaluation of expressive gesture synthesis for embodied conversational agents. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Utrecht, The Netherlands (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kallmann, M., Marsella, S.: Hierarchical Motion Controllers for Real-Time Autonomous Virtual Humans. In: Panayiotopoulos, T., Gratch, J., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P., Rist, T. (eds.) IVA 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3661, pp. 253–265. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kopp, S., Krenn, B., Marsella, S., Marshall, A., Pelachaud, C., Pirker, H., Thórisson, K., Vilhjalmsson, H.: Towards a Common Framework for Multimodal Generation in ECAs: The Behavior Markup Language. In: Gratch, J., Young, M., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P. (eds.) IVA 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4133, pp. 205–217. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kopp, S., Wachsmuth, I.: Synthesizing Multimodal Utterances for Conversational Agents. The Journal of Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 15(1), 39–52 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee, J., Marsella, S.: Nonverbal Behavior Generator for Embodied Conversational Agents. In: Gratch, J., Young, M., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P. (eds.) IVA 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4133, pp. 243–255. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Neff, M., Kipp, M., Albrecht, I., seidel, H.-P.: Gesture Modeling and Animation Based on a Probabilistic Recreation of Speaker Style. In: Transactions on Graphics, ACM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ruttkay, Z.: Constraint-based facial animation. Int. Journal of Constraints 6, 85–113 (2001)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ruttkay, Z., Zwiers, J., van Welbergen, H., Reidsma, D.: Towards a Reactive Virtual Trainer. In: Gratch, J., Young, M., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P. (eds.) IVA 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4133, pp. 292–303. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thórisson, K.R.: Natural Turn-Taking Needs No Manual: Computational Theory and Model, from Perception to Action. In: Granström, B., House, D., Karlsson, I. (eds.) Multimodality in Language and Speech Systems, pp. 173–207. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Warwick, W., Vilhjalmsson, H.: Engendering Believable Communicative Behaviors in Synthetic Entities for Tactical Language Training: An Interim Report. In: Proceedings of Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation, Universal City, CA (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannes Vilhjálmsson
    • 1
  • Nathan Cantelmo
    • 2
  • Justine Cassell
    • 2
  • Nicolas E. Chafai
    • 3
  • Michael Kipp
    • 4
  • Stefan Kopp
    • 5
  • Maurizio Mancini
    • 3
  • Stacy Marsella
    • 7
  • Andrew N. Marshall
    • 7
  • Catherine Pelachaud
    • 3
  • Zsofi Ruttkay
    • 6
  • Kristinn R. Thórisson
    • 1
  • Herwin van Welbergen
    • 6
  • Rick J. van der Werf
    • 6
  1. 1.CADIA, Reykjavik UniversityIceland
  2. 2.ArticuLab, Northwestern UniversityUSA
  3. 3.IUT de Montreuil, University de Paris 8France
  4. 4.DFKIGermany
  5. 5.Artificial Intelligence Group, University of BielefeldGermany
  6. 6.Human Media Interaction, University of TwenteThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern CaliforniaUSA

Personalised recommendations