A Simple Model for Human-Robot Emotional Interaction

  • Isabella Cattinelli
  • N. Alberto Borghese
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4693)


This paper describes a model of human-robot interaction. It computes the robot’s simulated emotional state as a result of the emotional input received from the user and the robot’s internal emotion dynamics. The latter is determined by the key elements of personality and attitude. The proposed model is a probabilistic finite state automaton, where the probabilistic transition function is called personality and is modified during the interaction according to the history of the interaction itself. The criterion which drives this personality change is called attitude. Such a model may be used in affective computing applications in order to design emotional agents and robots.


Affective Computing Probabilistic Finite State automata Human-Robot Interaction 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Picard, R.W.: Affective Computing. MIT Press, Cambridge (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Argyle, M.: Bodily Communication. International Universities Press, Inc. (1975)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Silva, P.R.D., Bianchi-Berthouze, N.: Measuring posture features saliency in expressing affective states. In: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS’04), pp. 2003–2008 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Silva, P.R.D., Osano, M., Marasinghe, A., Madurapperuma, A.P.: Towards recognizing emotion with affective dimensions through body gestures. In: FGR ’06: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR06), pp. 269–274 (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson, K., McOwan, P.: A real-time automated system for the recognition of human facial expressions. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part B 36(1), 96–105 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lisetti, C., LeRouge, C.: Affective computing in tele-home health. In: HICSS ’04: Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’04) - Track 6 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Binsted, K., Bergen, B., Coulson, S., Nijholt, A., Stock, O., Strapparava, C., Ritchie, G., Manurung, R., Pain, H., Waller, A., O’Mara, D.: Computational humor. IEEE Intelligent Systems 21(2), 59–69 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Picard, R.W., Vyzas, E., Healey, J.: Toward machine emotional intelligence: Analysis of affective physiological state. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 23(10), 1175–1191 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Manual for the Facial Action Coding System. Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., Palo Alto (1978)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hopcroft, J.E., Ullman, J.D.: Introduction to automata theory, languages and computation. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1979)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kopecek, I.: Constructing personality model from observed communication. In: Proc. 9th International Conference on User Modeling; Assessing and Adapting to User Attitides and Effect: Why, When and How?, pp. 28–30 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gmytrasiewicz, P.J., Lisetti, C.L.: Emotions and personality in agent design. In: AAMAS ’02: Proceedings of the First International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents & Multiagent Systems, July 15-19, 2002, Bologna, Italy, pp. 360–361 (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ekman, P.: An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion 6(3-4), 169–200 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scherer, K.R.: On the nature and function of emotion: A component process approach. In: Approaches to emotion, pp. 293–317. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (1984)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    AIBO: Web site (1999),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabella Cattinelli
    • 1
  • N. Alberto Borghese
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. Computer Science, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Comelico 39/41, 20135 MilanItaly

Personalised recommendations