General Concepts in Meteorology and Dynamics

  • Andrew Charlton-PerezEmail author
  • William Lahoz
  • Richard Swinbank


The aim of this chapter is to give a general overview of the atmospheric circulation, highlighting the main concepts that are important for a basic understanding of meteorology and atmospheric dynamics relevant to atmospheric data assimilation.


Rossby Wave Meridional Circulation Polar Vortex Walker Circulation Middle Atmosphere 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Andrews, D.G., J.R. Holton, and C.B. Leovy, 1987. Middle Atmosphere Dynamics, Academic Press, New York, 489 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, D.G. and M.E. McIntyre, 1976. Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen-Palm relation and the mean zonal circulation. J. Atmos Sci., 33, 2031–2048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brewer, A.W., 1949. Evidence for a world circulation provided by measurements of helium and water vapour distribution in the stratosphere. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 75, 351–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Charlton, A.J., A. O’Neill, D.B. Stephenson, et al., 2003. Can knowledge of the state of the stratosphere be used to improve statistical forecasts in the troposphere? Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 129, 3205–3224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Charlton, A.J. and L.M. Polvani, 2007. A new look at stratospheric sudden warmings. Part I: Climatology and modeling benchmarks. J. Clim., 20, 449–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charlton, A.J., L.M. Polvani, J. Perlwitz, et al., 2007. A new look at stratospheric sudden warmings. Part II. Evaluation of numerical model simulations. J. Climate, 20, 471–488, doi:10.1175/JCLI3994.1.Google Scholar
  7. Dessler, A.E., 2000. The Chemistry and Physics of Stratospheric Ozone, Academic Press, New York, 214 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Farman, J.C., B.G. Gardiner, and J.D. Shanklin, 1985. Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction. Nature, 315, 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fleming, E.L., S. Chandra, M.R. Schoeberl, and J.J. Barnett, 1988. Monthly Mean Global Climatology of Temperature, Wind, Geopotential Height and Pressure for 0–120 km. NASA Technical Memorandum 100697, February 1988. Available from
  10. Haynes, P.H., C.J. Marks, M.E. McIntyre, T.G. Shepherd, and K.P. Shine, 1991. On the “Downward Control” of extratropical diabatic circulations by eddy-induced mean zonal forces. J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 651–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heifetz, E., C.H. Bishop, B.J. Hoskins, and J. Methven, 2004a. The counter-propagating Rossby wave perspective on baroclinic instability. Part I: Mathematical basis. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 211–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heifetz, E., J. Methven, B.J. Hoskins, and C.H. Bishop, 2004b. The counter-propagating Rossby wave perspective on baroclinic instability. Part II: Application to the Charney model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 233–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Held, I.M. and A.Y. Hou, 1980. Nonlinear axially symmetric circulations in a nearly inviscid atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 515–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holton, J.R., 2004. An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 4th edition, Elsevier Academic Press, London, 553 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Lahoz, W.A., Q. Errera, R. Swinbank, and D. Fonteyn, 2007a. Data assimilation of constituents: A review. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5745–5773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lahoz, W.A., A.J. Geer, and Y. Orsolini, 2007b. Northern hemisphere stratospheric summer from MIPAS observations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 133, 197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lahoz, W.A., A. O’Neill, A. Heaps, et al., 1996. Vortex dynamics and the evolution of water vapour in the Stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 122, 423–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matthewman N.J., J.G. Esler, A.J. Charlton-Perez, and L.M. Polvani, 2009. A new look at stratospheric sudden warmings. Part III. Polar vortex evolution and vertical structure. J. Climate, DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2365.1.Google Scholar
  19. Methven, J., E. Heifetz, B.J. Hoskins, and C.H. Bishop, 2005a. The counter-propagating Rossby wave perspective on baroclinic instability. Part III: Primitive equation disturbances on the sphere. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 1393–1424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Methven, J., B.J. Hoskins, E. Heifetz, and C.H. Bishop, 2005b. The counter-propagating Rossby wave perspective on baroclinic instability. Part IV: Nonlinear life cycles. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 1425–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peixoto, J.P. and A.H. Oort, 1992. Physics of Climate, American Institute of Physics, New York, 565 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Randel, W.J., F. Wu, H. Vömel, G.E. Nedoluha, and P. Forster, 2006. Decreases in stratospheric water vapor after 2001: Links to changes in the tropical tropopause and the Brewer–Dobson circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12312, doi:10.1029/2005JD006744.Google Scholar
  23. Rees, M.H., 1989. Physics and Chemistry of the Upper Atmosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 304 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shine, K.P., 1987. The middle atmosphere in the absence of dynamical heat fluxes. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 113, 603–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Suarez, M.J. and P.S. Schopf, 1994. A delayed action oscillator for ENSO. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 3283–3287.Google Scholar
  26. Swinbank, R., 1985. The global atmospheric angular momentum balance inferred from analyses made during the FGGE, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 111, 977–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vallis, G.K., 2007. Atmospheric and Ocean Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 745 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Charlton-Perez
    • 1
    Email author
  • William Lahoz
    • 2
  • Richard Swinbank
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MeteorologyUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  2. 2.Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILUKjellerNorway
  3. 3.Met OfficeExeterUK

Personalised recommendations