Inclusion in the E-Service Society – Investigating Administrative Literacy Requirements for Using E-Services

  • Åke Grönlund
  • Mathias Hatakka
  • Andreas Ask
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4656)


This paper investigates potential changes in requirements for “adminis-trative literacy” – knowledge and skills required from citizens – when manual services are replaced by electronic ones. Do requirements increase, decrease or change qualitatively? We compare manual and electronic versions of ten commonly used services. The needs for knowledge and skills, content and procedures were considerably less for the e-services in eight out of ten cases; however, in complicated services there may rather be a change of skills, e.g. replacing verbal skills with skill in searching for information online.

E-services relieve the user of some requirements; hence one obstacle for inclusion is reduced. However, we also found problems with the e-services implying that design of e-services should be informed by the kind of measure we have used as it is of great importance for inclusion in the e-society.


electronic government assessment electronic services e-participation knowledge skill administrative literacy 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Åke Grönlund
    • 1
  • Mathias Hatakka
    • 1
  • Andreas Ask
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept of Informatics (ESI), Örebro University, S-701 82 ÖrebroSweden

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