Vegetation Dynamics and Succession on Sand Dunes of the Eastern Coasts of Africa

  • R. A. Lubke
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 171)

This chapter is a critical analysis of natural prograding and eroding dunes and mobile dune fields providing a baseline for successional change in dune systems, and the effects of aliens and predictions made regarding the changes on the dynamics of the dune systems are described. On the basis of this research suggestions are made regarding management of dune systems.


Sand Dune Coastal Dune Dune System Dune Slack Dune Field 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Austin MP (1985) Continuum concept, ordination methods and niche theory. Aust Rev Ecol Syst 16: 39-61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avis AM (1992) Coastal dune ecology and management in the eastern Cape.Unpubl PhD Thesis, Rhodes Univ, GrahamstownGoogle Scholar
  3. Avis AM (1995) An evaluation of the vegetation developed after artificially stabilizing South African coastal dunes with indigenous species. J Coastal Conserv 1:41-50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avis AM, Lubke RA (1996) Dynamics and succession of coastal dune vegetation in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Landscape Urban Plann 34:347-254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cobby JE (1988) The management of diverse ecological types of the Directorate of Forestry.In: Bruton MN,Gess FW (eds).Towards an environment plan for the Eastern Cape. Rhodes Univ, Grahamstown. pp 126-163Google Scholar
  6. Clements FE (1916) Plant succession. Carnegie Institute,Washington, DC, Publ 242Google Scholar
  7. Connell JH, Slatyer RO (1977) Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization.Am Nat 111:1119-1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Drury WH, Nisbet ICT (1973) Succession. J Arnold Arboretum 54:331-368Google Scholar
  9. DWAF - Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (2002) Projects/wfw/
  10. Frazier JG (1993) Dry coastal ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania. In: van der Maarel E (ed) Dry coastal ecosystems - African,America,Asia and Oceania. Ecosystems of the world 2B. Elsevier Amsterdam, pp 129-150Google Scholar
  11. Gleason HA (1926) The individualistic concept of plant association. Ibid 53:7-26Google Scholar
  12. Hertling UM (1997) Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link. (marram grass) in South Africa and its potential invasiveness. PhD Thesis, Rhodes Univ, Grahamstown, South Africa, 279 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Hertling UM, Lubke RA (1999a) Indigenous and Ammophila arenaria-dominated dune vegetation on the South African Cape coast. J Appl Veg Sci 2:157-168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hertling UM, Lubke RA (1999b) Use of Ammophila arenaria for dune stabilization in South Africa and its current distribution - perceptions and problems. Environ Man-age 24:467-482Google Scholar
  15. Hertling UM, Lubke RA (2000) Assessing the potential for biological invasion - the case of Ammophila arenaria in South Africa. S Afr J Sci 96:520-527Google Scholar
  16. Judd R (2000) The Coastal Grasslands of the Eastern Cape, West of the Kei River. PhD Thesis. Rhodes Univ, Grahamstown, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  17. Knevel IC (2001) The life history of selected coastal fore dune species of Eastern Cape, South Africa. PhD Thesis, Rhodes Univ, Grahamstown, South Africa, 291 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Lubke RA (1983) A survey of the coastal vegetation near Port Alfred,Eastern Cape.Bothalia 14:725-738Google Scholar
  19. Lubke RA (1985) Erosion of the beach at St. Francis Bay, eastern Cape. Biol Conserv 32:99-127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lubke RA,Avis AM (1982) Factors affecting the distribution of Scirpus nodosus plants in a dune slack community. S Afr J Bot 1(4):97-103Google Scholar
  21. Lubke RA, Avis AM (1988) Succession on the coastal dunes and dune slacks at Kleine-monde, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Monogr Syst Bot Missouri Bot Gard 25:599-622Google Scholar
  22. Lubke RA, Avis AM (2000) 17 years of change in a dune slack community in the Eastern Cape. Proc IAVS Symp 2000 IAVS, Opulus Press, Uppsala, pp 35-38Google Scholar
  23. Lubke RA, Hertling UM (2001) The role of European marram grass in dune stabilization and succession near Cape Agulhas, South Africa. J Coastal Conserv 7:171-182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lubke RA,Avis AM,Phillipson PB (1991) Vegetation and floristics.Reprinted from: Envi-ronmental impact assessment, eastern shores of Lake St Lucia (Kingsa/Tojan Lease Area) Specialist Reports. Coastal and Environmental Services, Grahamstown, 741 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Lubke RA,Avis AM, Steinke TD, Boucher CB (1997) Coastal vegetation: In: Cowling RM, Richardson D (eds) Vegetation of South Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  26. Margalef R (1968) Perspectives in ecological theory. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  27. Maun MA, Lapierre J (1984) The effects of burial by sand on Ammophila breviligulata. J Ecol 72:827-839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moll EJ (1969) A preliminary account of the dune communities at Pennington Park, Mtunzini, Natal. Bothalia 10:615-626Google Scholar
  29. Morrison RG, Yarranton GA (1973) Diversity, richness and evenness during a primary sand dune succession at Grand Bend, Ontario. Can J Bot 51:2401-2411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Musila WM, Kinyamario JI, Jungerius PD (2001) Vegetation dynamics of coastal sand dunes near Malindi, Kenya.Afr J Ecol 39:170-177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Olson JS (1958) Rates of succession and soil changes on south Lake Michigan sand dunes. Bot Gaz 119:125-170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pammenter NW (1983) Some aspects of the ecophysiology of Scaevola thunbergii, a sub-tropical coastal dune pioneer. In: McLachlan A, Erasmus T (eds) Sandy beaches as ecosystems. Developments in hydrobiology, vol 19.W Junk, The Hague, pp 675-685Google Scholar
  33. Picket STA, Collins SL, Armesto JJ (1987) Models, mechanisms and pathways of succes-sion. Bot Rev 53:335-371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Richardson DM, Macdonald IAW, Hoffmann JH, Henderson L (1997) Alien plant inva-sions. In: Cowling RM, ichardson DM, Pierce SM (eds) Vegetation of Southern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 535-570Google Scholar
  35. Salisbury EJ (1925) Note on the edaphic succession in some dune soils with special reference to the time factor. J Ecol 13:322-328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shaughnessy GL (1980) Historical ecology of alien woody plants in the vicinity of Cape Town, South Africa. PhD Thesis, University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  37. Shipley B, Keddy PA (1987) The individualistic and community-unity-concepts as falsi-fiable hypotheses.Vegetatio 69:47-55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Talbot MMB, Bate GC (1991) The structure of vegetation in bush pockets of trangressive coastal dune fields. S Afr J Bot 57:156-160Google Scholar
  39. Tinley KL (1985) Coastal dunes of South Africa. South African National Scientific Pro-grammes Report, No 109. CSIR, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  40. Van Dorp D, Boot R, Van der Maarel E (1985) Vegetation succession on the dunes near Oostvoorne, The Netherlands, since 1934, interpreted from air photographs and veg-etation maps.Vegetatio 56:123-126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Weidemann AM, A Pickart (1996) The Ammophila problem on the northwest coast of North America. Landscape Urban Plann 34:287-299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weisser PJ (1978) Changes in the area of grasslands on the dunes between Richards Bay and the Mfolozi River 1937-1974. Proc Grassland Soc S Afr 13:95-97Google Scholar
  43. Weisser PJ, Backer AP (1983) Monitoring beach and dune advancement and vegetation changes 1937-1977 at the farm Twinstreams, Mtunzini, Natal, South Africa. In: Mc Lachlan A, Erasmus T (eds): Sandy beaches as ecosystems. Developments in Hydrobi-ology, vol 19. Junk, The Hague, pp 727-740Google Scholar
  44. Weisser PJ, Garland LF, Drews BK (1982) Dune advancement 1937-1977 at the Mlalazi Nature Reserve, Natal, South Africa, and preliminary vegetation-succession chronol-ogy. Bothalia 4:127-130Google Scholar
  45. Whittaker RH (1975) Communities and ecosystems, 2nd edn. MacMillan, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Lubke
    • 1
  1. 1.Botany DepartmentRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations