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Introduction

Part of the Springer Laboratory book series (SPLABORATORY)

Abstract

Thomas Graham was the father of membrane science, and he performed the first recorded experiments on the transport of gases and vapors in polymeric membranes. In 1829, he observed that a wet pig bladder inflated to the bursting point when placed in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide [1]. In 1861, Graham reported his first dialysis experiment using a synthetic membrane [2]. He also tested a permeability rate measuring device using flat membranes with a vacuum on one side, displacing amercury column, and postulated a mechanism for the permeation process [3].Mitchell [4, 5] was the first who reported gas permeation through natural rubbers. Schoenbein [6] was the first to study cellulose nitrate, the first synthetic (or semisynthetic) polymer. Fick [7] used cellulose nitratemembranes in his classic study “Ueber Diffusion”. Lord Rayleigh [8]] was the first to determine the relative permeabilities of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon in rubber. Later on, polymer membranes were used for the separation of gases, etc. [9, 10]. Since the early 1960s, synthetic membranes have been used successfully in a wide variety of industrial applications.

Keywords

Atomic Force Microscopy Relative Permeability Natural Rubber Composite Membrane Polymeric Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

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