High-Resolution TEM Imaging



Spatial resolution is important for any microscopy. This chapter presents the theory, technique, and examples of achieving the ultimate resolution of a transmission electron microscope with the method of “high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.” Recall (Sect. 2.3.4) that the HRTEM image is an interference pattern of the electron wavefunction with itself after it is diffracted from the specimen. Interference patterns require close attention to the phases of the waves. While the ray optics approach is useful for a few geometrical arguments, the most important issues in HRTEM are best understood in terms of the phase of the electron wavefront and how this phase is altered by the specimen and by the objective lens. The specimen itself is treated as an object that provides phase shifts to the electron wavefront, sometimes in proportion to its scattering potential. The method of HRTEM also demands close attention to the performance of the objective lens and other characteristics of the microscope.


HRTEM Image Spherical Wave Spherical Aberration Fresnel Zone Contrast Transfer Function 
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Further Reading

  1. S. Amelinckx and D. van Dyck: ‘Diffraction Contrast and High Resolution Microscopy of Structures and Structural Defects’, in Electron Diffraction Techniques, Volume 2, J. M. Cowley, Ed. (International Union of Crystallography, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1992).Google Scholar
  2. J. Barry: ‘Computing for High-Resolution Images and Diffraction Patterns’. In Electron Diffraction Techniques, Volume 1, J. M. Cowley, Ed. (International Union of Crystallography, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1992).Google Scholar
  3. P. R. Buseck, J. M. Cowley and L. Eyring: High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Associated Techniques (Oxford University Press, Oxford 1988).Google Scholar
  4. J. M. Cowley: Diffraction Physics, 2nd edn. (North-Holland, Amsterdam. 1975).Google Scholar
  5. M. De Graef: Introduction to Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy (University Press, Cambridge 2003).Google Scholar
  6. P. Grivet: Electron Optics, revised by A. Septier, translated by P. W. Hawkes (Pergamon, Oxford 1965).Google Scholar
  7. L. Reimer: Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis, 4th edn. (Springer-Verlag, New York 1997).Google Scholar
  8. J. C. Russ: Computer-Assisted Microscopy: The Measurement and Analysis of Images (Plenum Press, New York 1990).Google Scholar
  9. F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson: Optics, 2nd edn. (John Wiley and Sons, New York 1988).Google Scholar
  10. J. C. H. Spence: Experimental High-Resolution Electron Microscopy (Oxford University Press, Oxford 1988).Google Scholar
  11. G. Thomas and M. J. Goringe: Transmission Electron Microscopy of Materials (Wiley-Interscience, New York 1979).Google Scholar
  12. D. B. Williams and C. B. Carter: Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science (Plenum Press, New York 1996).Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

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