New Aspects of Estimating Electrical Participating Volume of the Thorax for Transthoracic Impedance Cardiography

  • J. Fortin
  • R. Grüllenberger
  • W. Habenbacher
  • A. Hacker
  • A. Heller
  • H. Passath
  • D. Flotzinger
  • P. Wach
Part of the IFMBE Proceedings book series (IFMBE, volume 17)


The paper gives an overview of historic impedance cardiography in order to describe the course of evolution as well as the shortcomings of previous calculations. One goal of all impedance cardiography (ICG) formulas is the correct estimation of electrical participating thoracic volume. A new method – continuous non-invasive cardiac output (CNCO) – is disclosed using an improved estimate of thoracic volume. The formulas are implemented in software and validated for CE and FDA certification as part of the Task Force® Monitor and other CNCO patient monitoring products of CNSystems AG, Graz, Austria.


Impedance Cardiography Left Ventricular Ejection Time Blood Resistivity Total Peripheral Resistance Index Thoracic Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Fortin
    • 1
  • R. Grüllenberger
    • 1
  • W. Habenbacher
    • 1
  • A. Hacker
    • 1
  • A. Heller
    • 1
  • H. Passath
    • 1
  • D. Flotzinger
    • 1
  • P. Wach
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Medical EngineeringGrazAustria

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