Advertisement

Transborder Data Protection and the Effects on Business and Government

  • Julian Ligertwood
  • Margaret Jackson
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4560)

Abstract

The expansion of the internet has brought with it a huge increase in the number of instances of personal information sent by businesses and governments from one jurisdiction to another. Concern arising out of Europe, in particular, over the adequacy of data protection measures in many jurisdictions around the world has resulted in increasing international pressure being applied to those countries not meeting adequacy requirements. This paper examines the nature and effect of this pressure particularly on Australian business and government.

Keywords

Australia EU India data protection law business government 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bender, D.: Data protection Law in India: A Change in Direction. Privacy and Security Law Report (January 12, 2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Business Standard, Govt to introduce data protection laws, (November 3, 2004), http://www.business-standard.com/fulltextsearch/searchhome.php
  3. 3.
    Cooper, D.: Trans border data flow and the protection of privacy: The harmonization of data protection law, 8 Fletcher Forum 344; Patrick, P. 1981, Privacy restrictions on trans-national data flows: A comparison of the Council of Europe draft convention and OECD guidelines. Jurimetrics Journal 21(4), 405–420 (1984)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    George, C., Gaut, R.: Offshore Outsourcing to India by EU and US Companies: Legal and Cross Cultural Issues that Affect Data Privacy Regulation in Business Process Outsourcing. 6 University of California Business Law Journal 13, 13 (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Douglas-Stewart, J.: Annotated National Privacy Principles (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    EU Advisory Body on Data Protection and Privacy, Article 29, Data Protection Working Party, Opinion 3/2001 on the level of protection of the Australian Privacy Amendment (private Sector) Act 2000, pp. 15–17, (January 26, 2001) at (10/10/2006), http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/docs/wpdocs/2001/wp40en.pdf
  7. 7.
    European Commission: Commission Decision of 15 June 2001 on standard contractual clauses for the transfer of personal data to third countries, under Directive 95/46/EC, at (10/10/2006), http://www.privacy.vic.gov.au/dir100/priweb.nsf/download/8BCE83DBBB2B2996CA2571870015C020/FILE/Model%20Terms%20Guidelines_June%202006.pdf
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    European Commission, Council Directive 94/46EC, 24 October 1995, at 10/10/2006, article 10, http://www.europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/
  10. 10.
    European Commission op cit, article 6Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    European Commission op cit, article 14 (b)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    European Commission op cit, article 12Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    European Commission op cit, article 28Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    European Commission, ‘Decisions on the adequacy of the protection of personal data in third countries’, Note that a Safe Harbor Privacy Principles agreement has been negotiated between the US and the EU to provide for data transfers. Under Safe Harbor, an organisation ‘self certifies’ to the US Department of Commerce or another designated body its adherence to the seven privacy principles. See at (31/1/2007) (10/10/2006), http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/thridcountries/index_en.htm http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/thridcountries/index_en.htm
  15. 15.
    European Commission, Model contracts for the transfer of personal data to third countries at (28/11/2006), http://europa.eu.int/comm/internal_market/privacy/modelcontracts_en.htm
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Evans, A.C.: Data protection in Europe. Journal of World Trade Law 15, 150–158 (1981)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greenleaf, G.: APEC’s Privacy Framework: A New Low Standard 11 Privacy Law & Policy Reporter 1. In: Greenleaf, G. (ed.) APEC Privacy Framework Completed: No Threat to Privacy Standards (2006) Privacy Law and Policy Reporter 5 (2005) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Greenleaf, G., Waters, N.: The Asia Pacific Privacy Charter, Working Draft1.0 Worldlii Privacy Law Resources, (2003) at (10/10/2006), http://www.worldlii.org/int/other/PrivLRes/2003/1.html
  20. 20.
    Hill, G.: Harmony or Discord? Using Intra Group Contracts to address International Data Protection Standards 10. Privacy Law and Policy Reporter 31 (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holland, M.: NASSCOM 2007: India wants to be security leader. ITPRO website, (2007) at (13/2/2007), http://www.itpro.co.uk/internet/news/104067/nasscom-2007-india-wants-to-be-security-leader.html
  22. 22.
    Hong Kong Office of the Privacy Commissioner, Model Contract prepared jointly by the Council of Europe, the EU and the International Chamber of Commerce 1992, Fact sheet no 1, Transfer of Personal Information outside Hong Kong: Some Common Questions (April 1997)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lebihan, R.: Banks face privacy probe. Australian Financial Review (October 13, 2006)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    OECD Recommendations of the Council Concerning Guidelines Governing the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flow of Personal Data (September 23, 1980) at (10/10/2006), http://www.oecd.org/document/18/0,2340,en_2649_34255_1815186_1_1_1_1,00.htm
  25. 25.
    Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner. How do I know if the country I am sending personal information to ... at (10/10/2006), http://www.privacy.gov.au/faqs/bf/q6.html
  26. 26.
    Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner media announcement. Cross Tasman initiative to promote privacy protection (September 19, 2006) 29/11/2006, http://www.privacy.gov.au/news/06_20.html
  27. 27.
    Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner. Guidelines to the National Privacy Principles, p. 58 (2001)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Office of the Privacy Commissioner. Getting in on the Act, The Review of the Private Sector Provisions of the Privacy Act 1988, Rec. 18 (March 2005)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
    Office of the Privacy Commissioner, Getting in on the Act, The Review of the Private Sector Provisions of the Privacy Act 1988, p. 78 (March 2005)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    Office of the Privacy Commissioner, Getting in on the Act, The Review of the Private Sector Provisions of the Privacy Act 1988, p. 76 (March 2005)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Out-Law News. In: Commissioner will probe call centre data leaks, (October 10, 2006) at (27/11/2006), http://www.out-law.com
  34. 34.
    Privacy Act 1988 (Cth), Sch 3, NPP 9. See also Privacy and personal Information Protection Act 1998, s 19(2) and Information Privacy Act (Vic), IPP 9Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Raja, M.: India tightens data protection law. Asian Times, (October 20, 2006) at (28/11/2006), http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia.html
  36. 36.
    See Australian Direct Marketing Association submission to Office of the Privacy Commissioner. Getting in on the Act, The Review of the Private Sector Provisions of the Privacy Act 1988, p. 67 (March 2005)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    See submissions of Coles Meyer, ADMA, Telstra and ABA to Office of the Privacy Commissioner. Getting in on the Act, The Review of the Private Sector Provisions of the Privacy Act 1988, fn 50, 78 (March 2005)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    See submissions of Telstra and ANZ to Office of the Privacy Commissioner. Getting in on the Act, The Review of the Private Sector Provisions of the Privacy Act 1988, fn 49, 77 (March 2005)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Victorian Privacy Commissioner, Model Terms for Transborder Data Flows of Personal Information (June 2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julian Ligertwood
    • 1
  • Margaret Jackson
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Accounting and Law, RMIT University, 239 Bourke St, Melbourne, VICAustralia

Personalised recommendations