Advertisement

Synchronous Reading in Real-Time Environments

  • Yoram Eshet
  • Eran Chajut
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4553)

Abstract

The story-telling multimedia Living Book is one of the most common edutainment genres, in which children hear and play with interactive and animated stories. Living Books are designed so that that every word of the narrated story is projected on the computer monitor as it is narrated. This enables listeners to integrate between the audio and textual representation of words and thus to understand their meaning and learn their pronunciation. The present paper presents results of a study which showed that young children who did not know how to speak or read the English language became proficient in pronunciation and gained a high level of understanding by playing with Living Books. Results show that the participants were able to correctly pronounce almost 70% of the words in the Living Book, and could identify the meaning of about 70% of them. On the other hand, it was found that they were able to read words as orthographic units but not to identify individual letters (average of 6.25%). Our findings point to the potential for incidental learning in highly-interactive, engaging and playful multimedia environments, such as Living Books.

Keywords

living books multimedia reading edutainment incidental learning 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Amory, A., Naicker, K., Vincent, J., Adams, C.: The use of computer games as an educational tool: Identification of appropriate game types and game elements. British Journal of Educational Technology 30(4), 311–321 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barkan, R., Zohar, D., Erev, I.: Accidents and decision making under uncertainty: A comparison of four models. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 74, 118–144 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beavis, C.: Literacy, English and computer games. In: Paper presented at The Power of Language International Federation for the Teaching of English, Seventh Conference, 10 July, 1999, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beentjes, J.: Children’s Use of Different Media: For How Long and Why? In: Livingstone, S., Bovill, M. (eds.) Children and Their Changing Media Environment. A European Comparative Study, pp. 85–111. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ & London (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown, E.: That’s edutainment. McGraw Hill, New York, NY (1995)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fallahkhair, S.: Media convergence: An architecture for iTV and mobile phone based interactive language learning. In: Masthoff, J., Griffiths, R., Pemberton, L. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Interactive Television: Enhancing the experience, Brighton (March 31-April 2, 2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Foreman, J.: Game-based learning: How to delight and instruct in the 21st century. Educause Review 39(5), 50–66 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fromme, J.: Computer games as a part of children’s culture. Game Studies. The International Journal of Computer Game Research [On-line], 3(1) (2003), available: http://gamestudies.org/0301/fromme/
  9. 9.
    Gilat, S., Meyer, J., Erev, I., Gopher, D.: Beyond Bayes theorem: The effect of base rate information in consensus games and the effect of base rate information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 3, 83–104 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gopher, D., Weil, M., Bareket, T.: Transfer of skill from computer game trainer to flight. Human Factors 36(3), 387–405 (1994)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Healy, A.: Teaching reading and writing in a multiliteracies context: Classroom practice. Post Pressed, Flaxton, Australia (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Healy, A., Dooley, K.: Digital reading pedagogy for novice readers. In: AARE 2002. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Henderson, L., Klemes, Y., Eshet, Y.: Just playing a game? Educational simulation software and cognitive outcomes. Journal of Educational Computing Research 22(1), 105–129 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Henry, A.: Computer-graphics and the literary construct: A learning method. British Journal of Educational Technology 33(1), 7–15 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krashen, S.: Second language acquisition and second language learning. Pergamon, Oxford (1981)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koolstra, C.M.: Children’s vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language through watching subtitled television programs at home. Educational Technology Research and Development 47(1), 51–60 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marsick, V.J., Watkins, K.: Informal and incidental learning in the workplace. Routledge, London and New York (1990)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mayer, R.E.: Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McLaughlin, B.: Theories of second language learning. Edward Arnold, London (1987)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Milton, J.: Literature review in languages, technology and learning: Report # 1 Nesta Futurelab [On-line] (2002), available http://www.nestafuturelab.org/research/reviews/lang01.htm
  21. 21.
    Mitchell, R., Myles, F.: Second language learning theories. Oxford University Press, London (1998)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Okan, Z.: Edutainment: Is learning at risk? British Journal of Educational Technology 34(3), 255–264 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pemberton, L., Fallahkhair, S., Masthoff, J.: Towards a theoretical framework for informal language learning via interactive television. In: Kinshuk, D.G., Sampson, G., Isaias, P. (eds.) CELDA 2004. Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age, pp. 27–34. IADIS Press, Lisbon (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saga, H.: Digital transformation of words in learning processes: A critical review. Educational Media International 36(3), 195–202 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Snyder, I. (ed.): From page to screen: Taking literacy into the electronic era. Allan and Unwin, Sydney (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Snyder, I.: Digital literacies: Renegotiating the visual and the verbal in communication. Prospect: A Journal of Australian TESOL 14(3), 13–23 (1999)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Squire, K.: Changing the game: What happens when video games enter the classroom? Innovate. Journal of Online Education 1(6) (2005), available: www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=82
  28. 28.
    Stanford, R., Williamson, B.: Games and learning. Nesta Futurelab Report [Online] (2005), available: http://www.nestafuturelab.org/download/pdfs/research/handbooks/games_and_learning.pdf
  29. 29.
    Subrahmanyam, K., Greenfield, P., Kraut, R., Gross, E.: The impact of computer use on children’s and adolescents’ development. Applied Developmental Psychology 22, 7–30 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wiggins, G.: Assessing student performance: Exploring the purpose and limits of testing. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1993)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Williams, G.: The pedagogic device and the production of pedagogic discourse: A case example in early literacy education. In: Christie, F. (ed.) Pedagogy and the shaping of consciousness: Linguistic and social processes, pp. 88-122. Cassell, Cambridge(1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoram Eshet
    • 1
  • Eran Chajut
    • 1
  1. 1.The Open University of Israel, 108 Ravutzky st., Raanana, 43107Israel

Personalised recommendations