Freehand Sketching Interfaces: Early Processing for Sketch Recognition

  • Shu-xia Wang
  • Man-tun Gao
  • Le-hua Qi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4551)


Freehand sketching interfaces allow the user to directly interact with tasks without worrying about low-level commands. The paper presents a method for interpreting on-line freehand sketch and describes a human-computer interface prototype system of freehand sketch recognition (FSR) that is designed to infer designers’ intention and interprets the input sketch into more exact 2D geometric primitives: straight lines, polylines, circles, circular arcs, ellipses, elliptical arcs, hyperbolas and parabolas. According to whether the stroke needs to be segmented or not, it is divided into single primitives and composite primitives correspondingly. Based on open/closed characteristic and semi-invariant, conic type and category of freehand sketch were defined for subdividing conic curve. Recognition approach for composite-primitive consists of three stages. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated preliminarily by experiments.


Freehand sketching interface Recognition Segmentation Stroke 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Landay, J.A., Myers, B.A.: Sketching interfaces: Toward more human interface design. IEEE Computer 34(2), 56–64 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eggli L., Brüderlin B. P., Elber G.: Sketching as a solid modeler tool, Third Symposium on Solid Modeling and Applications, ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 313–321 (1995)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pugh, D.: Designing solid objects using interactive sketch interpretation. Computer Graphics Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics 25(2), 117–126 (1992)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hu, H.-q.: Freehand Sketch-based Three-dimensional CAD System, Zhejiang University (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.-x. Ma.: Research on Gesture Description and Sketch Design System in Conceptual Design PhD thesis, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pereira, J.: Ambiguous calligraphic interaction for modeling environments, PhD thesis, FEUP (April 2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zeleznik, R.C., Herndon, K.P., Hughes, J.F.: Sketch: An Interface for Sketching 3D Scenes. In: SIGGRAPH ’96 Conference Proceedings, ACM, 30(4) 163–170 (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shpitalni, M., Lipson, H.: Classification of sketch strokes and corner detection using conic sections and adaptive clustering. Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans ASME 119, 131–135 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Igarashi, T., Matsuoka, S., Tanaka, H., Teddy: A sketching interface for 3D freeform design. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 99 pp. 409–416 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ku., D.C., Qin, S.-F., Wright, D.K.: Interpretation of Overtracing Freehand Sketching for Geometric Shapes, WSCG’ (2006), Plzen, Czech Republic, 2 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, S.-x., Gao, M.-t., Qi, L.-h.: Online Recognition of Freehand Sketching Using Conic Curves, Transaction of Northwestern Polytechnical University, 2 (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shu-xia Wang
    • 1
  • Man-tun Gao
    • 1
  • Le-hua Qi
    • 1
  1. 1.Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an,710072China

Personalised recommendations