Integrating Folksonomies with the Semantic Web

  • Lucia Specia
  • Enrico Motta
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4519)


While tags in collaborative tagging systems serve primarily an indexing purpose, facilitating search and navigation of resources, the use of the same tags by more than one individual can yield a collective classification schema. We present an approach for making explicit the semantics behind the tag space in social tagging systems, so that this collaborative organization can emerge in the form of groups of concepts and partial ontologies. This is achieved by using a combination of shallow pre-processing strategies and statistical techniques together with knowledge provided by ontologies available on the semantic web. Preliminary results on the and Flickr tag sets show that the approach is very promising: it generates clusters with highly related tags corresponding to concepts in ontologies and meaningful relationships among subsets of these tags can be identified.


Social Annotation Multiple Ontology Single Ontology Partial Ontology Paradigmatic Association 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aurnhammer, M., Hanappe, P., Steels, L.: Augmenting Navigation for Collaborative Tagging with Emergent Semantics. In: Cruz, I., Decker, S., Allemang, D., Preist, C., Schwabe, D., Mika, P., Uschold, M., Aroyo, L.M. (eds.) ISWC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4273, pp. 58–71. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Begelman, G., Keller, P., Smadja, F.: Automated Tag Clustering: Improving search and exploration in the tag space. In: Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop, 15th WWW Conference, Edinburgh (2006)Google Scholar
  3. d’Aquin, M., Sabou, M., Dzbor, M., Baldassarre, C., Gridinoc, L., Angeletou, S., Mottta, E.: WATSON: A Gateway for the Semantic Web. Poster Session at 4th ESWC (2007)Google Scholar
  4. Ding, L., Finin, T., Joshi, A., Pan, R., Scott Cost, R., Peng, Y., Reddivari, P., Doshi, V.C., Sachs, J.: Swoogle: A Search and Metadata Engine for the Semantic Web. In: 13th ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Washington D.C. (2004)Google Scholar
  5. Golder, S., Huberman, B.A.: The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. HP Labs technical report (2005), available in
  6. Marlow, C., Naaman, M., Boyd, D., Davis, M.: Position Paper, Tagging, Taxonomy, Flickr, Article, ToRead. In: Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop, 15th WWW Conference, Edinburgh (2006)Google Scholar
  7. Mika, P.: Ontologies are us: A unified model of social networks and semantics. In: Gil, Y., Motta, E., Benjamins, V.R., Musen, M.A. (eds.) ISWC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3729, pp. 522–536. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Miller, A., Chorodow, M., Landes, S., Leacock, C., Thomas, R.G.: Using a Semantic Concordancer for Sense Identification. In: Arpa Human Language Technology Workshop, pp. 240–243 (1994)Google Scholar
  9. Motta, E., Sabou, M.: Next Generation Semantic Web Applications. In: Mizoguchi, R., Shi, Z.-Z., Giunchiglia, F. (eds.) ASWC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4185, pp. 24–29. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Pantel, P.: Clustering by Committee. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Alberta (2003)Google Scholar
  11. Sabou, M., d’Aquin, M., Motta, E.: Using the Semantic Web as Background Knowledge for Ontology Mapping. In: International Workshop on Ontology Matching, Athens, GA (2006)Google Scholar
  12. Schmitz, C., Hotho, A., Jäschke, R., Stumme, G.: Mining Association Rules in Folksonomie. In: IFCS Conference, Ljubljana, pp. 261–270 (2006)Google Scholar
  13. Schmitz, P.: Inducing ontology from Flickr tags. In: Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop, 15th WWW Conference, Edinburgh (2006)Google Scholar
  14. Schutz, A., Buitelaar, P.: RelExt: A Tool for Relation Extraction from Text in Ontology Extension. In: Gil, Y., Motta, E., Benjamins, V.R., Musen, M.A. (eds.) ISWC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3729, pp. 593–606. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Specia, L., Motta, E.: A hybrid approach for extracting semantic relations from texts. In: 2nd Workshop on Ontology Learning and Population at COLING/ACL 2006, Sydney, pp. 57–64 (2006)Google Scholar
  16. Wu, X., Zhang, L., Yu, Y.: Exploring social annotations for the semantic web. In: 15th WWW Conference, Edinburgh, pp. 417–426 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucia Specia
    • 1
  • Enrico Motta
    • 1
  1. 1.Knowledge Media Institute – The Open University, Walton Hall, MK7 6AA, Milton KeynesUK

Personalised recommendations