Advertisement

Early Outbreak Detection Using an Automated Data Feed of Test Orders from a Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

  • Loren Shaffer
  • Julie Funk
  • Päivi Rajala-Schultz
  • Garrick Wallstrom
  • Thomas Wittum
  • Michael Wagner
  • William Saville
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4506)

Abstract

Disease surveillance in animals remains inadequate to detect outbreaks resulting from novel pathogens and potential bioweapons. Mostly relying on confirmed diagnoses, another shortcoming of these systems is their ability to detect outbreaks in a timely manner. We investigated the feasibility of using veterinary laboratory test orders in a prospective system to detect outbreaks of disease earlier compared to traditional reporting methods. IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. automatically transferred daily records of laboratory test orders submitted from veterinary providers in Ohio via a secure file transfer protocol. Test products were classified to appropriate syndromic category using their unique identifying number. Counts of each category by county were analyzed to identify unexpected increases using a cumulative sums method. The results indicated that disease events can be detected through the prospective analysis of laboratory test orders and may provide indications of similar disease events in humans before traditional disease reporting.

Keywords

Disease Surveillance Test Order Daily Record Syndromic Surveillance Emerg Infect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Babin, S.M., et al.: Early detection of possible bioterrorist events using sentinel animals. In: The 131st Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Backer, L., et al.: Pet dogs as sentinels for environmental contamination. Sci. Total Environ. 274, 161–169 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bartlett, P.C., et al.: Development of a computerized dairy herd health data base for epidemiologic research. Prev. Vet. Med. 4, 3–14 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Begier, E.M., et al.: The National Capitol Region’s Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System: Do Chief Complaint and Discharge Diagnosis Yield Different Results? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9, 393–396 (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bradley, C.A., et al.: BioSense: Implementation of a National Early Event Detection and Situational Awareness System. MMWR Morb. Mortal Wkly Rep. 54, 11–19 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buehler, J.W., et al.: Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 53 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buehler, J.: Surveillance. In: Rothman, K.J., Greenland, S. (eds.) Modern Epidemiology, pp. 435–457. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buehler, J.W., et al.: Syndromic Surveillance and Bioterrorism-related Epidemics. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9, 1197–1204 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Conner, C.F.: Review of efforts to protect the agricultural sector and food supply from a deliberate attack with a biological agent, a toxin or a disease directed at crops and livestock. Bio-security and Agro-terrorism (July 20, 2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Conti, L.: Petborne Zoonoses: Detection and Surveillance Challenges. In: Burroughs, T., Knobler, S., Lederberg, J. (eds.) The Emergence of Zoonotic Diseases: Understanding the Impact on Animal and Human Health, National Academy Press, Washington (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dato, V., Wagner, M.M., Fapohunda, A.: How Outbreaks of Infectious Disease are Detected: A Review of Surveillance Systems and Outbreaks. Public Health Rep. 119, 464–471 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Davis, R.G.: The ABCs of bioterrorism for veterinarians, focusing on Category A agents. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 224, 1084–1095 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doherr, M.G., Audige, L.: Monitoring and surveillance for rare health-related events: a review from the veterinary perspective. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 356, 1097–1106 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Engle, M.J.: The Value of an "Early Warning" Surveillance System for Emerging Diseases, National Pork Board (2000)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Glickman, L.T., et al.: Purdue University-Banfield National Companion Animal Surveillance Program for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 6, 14–23 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Green, M.S., Kaufman, Z.: Surveillance for Early Detection and Monioring of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Associated with Bioterrorism. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 4, 503–506 (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Henning, K.J.: Syndromic Surveillance. In: Smolinski, M.S., Hamburg, M.A., Lederberg, J. (eds.) Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, National Academy Press, Washington (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Johnson, H.A., Wagner, M.M., Saladino, R.A.: A New Method for Investigating Non-traditional Biosurveillance Data: Studying Behaviors Prior to Emergency Department Visits (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaufmann, A.F., Meltzer, M.I., Schmid, G.P.: The Economic Impact of a Bioterrorist Attack: Are Prevention and Postattack Intervention Programs Justifiable? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3, 83–94 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kearney, B.: Strengthening Safeguards Against Disease Outbreaks. In Focus 5(2) (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kelsey, H.: Improvements in methodologies for tracking infectious disease needed. The Newsbulletin. Los Alamos National Laboratory (January 13, 2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lucas, J.M.: Counted Data CUSUM’s. Technometrics 27, 129–144 (1985)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mauer, W.A., Kaneene, J.B.: Integrated Human-Animal Disease Surveillance. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11, 1490–1491 (2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moodie, M., et al.: Biological Terrorism in the United States: Threat, Preparedness, and Response, Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute (November 2000)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    National Research Council. Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases. The National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. (July 2005)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Power, C.: Passive Animal Disease Surveillance in Canada: A Benchmark. In: Proceedings of a CAHNet Workshop, November 1999, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (1999)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shaffer, L.E., et al.: Evaluation of Microbiology Orders from two Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories as Potential Data Sources for Early Outbreak Detection. Adv Disease Surveil. forthcomingGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shephard, R., Aryel, R.M., Shaffer, L.: Animal Health. In: Wagner, M.M., Moore, A.W., Aryel, R.M. (eds.) Handbook of Biosurveillance, pp. 111–127. Elsevier Inc., New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sosin, D.: Draft Framework for Evaluating Syndromic Surveillance Systems. J. Urban Health 80, i8–i13 (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tsui, F.-C., et al.: Value of ICD-9-Coded Chief Complaints for Detection of Epidemics. In: Proceedings of the AMIA Annual Symposium, pp. 711–715 (2001)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vourc’h, G., et al.: Detecting Emerging Diseases in Farm Animals through Clinical Observations. Emerg. Infect. Dis 12, 204–210 (2006)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wagner, M.M., Aryel, R., Dato, V.: Availability and Comparative Value of Data Elements Required for an Effective Bioterrorism Detection System. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (November 28, 2001)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Witt, C.J.: Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE). Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections System (December 11, 2003)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Woolhouse, M.E.J.: Population biology of emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Trends Microbiol. 10, S3–S7 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Loren Shaffer
    • 1
  • Julie Funk
    • 2
  • Päivi Rajala-Schultz
    • 1
  • Garrick Wallstrom
    • 3
  • Thomas Wittum
    • 1
  • Michael Wagner
    • 3
  • William Saville
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 
  2. 2.National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 44824 
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219 

Personalised recommendations