Towards 3D environmental impact studies: example of noise

  • Jantien Stoter
  • Henk de Kluijver
  • Vinaykumar Kurakula
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)


Current environmental impact studies supporting environmental policies are mostly based on a 2D approach. The - mostly 3D - output of software that calculates the specific phenomenon (e.g. air or noise pollution) is processed and visualised in 2D and combined with 2D topographical and other data, such as population distribution, to quantify the effects.

The research described in the paper aimed at improving visualisation and quantification of impact of continuous spatial phenomena on the environment by applying a 3D approach. Noise is taken as example. Based on the specific demand, an approach is presented to generate a 3D noise map as basis for noise impact studies. The proposed concept is proofed by applying it to a sample noise impact study. From experiences with the sample it can be concluded that the 3D noise map offers insight into the 3D noise situation where 2D noise maps have limitations. In addition more accurate assessment of noise impact is possible in particular when different floors of a building close to the noise source and/or behind noise barriers are considered, which is specifically relevant in urban areas. The proposed methodology can be applied to other continuous spatial phenomena so that it meets the more general problem of how to represent 3D aspects of environmental impact studies.


Noise Level Inverse Distance Weighting Noise Impact Noise Barrier Triangular Irregular Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Association for Information Systems, 2007,
  2. Boissonnat, J. and J. Flötotto, A local coordinate system on a surface. Proceedings 7th ACM Symposium on Solid Modeling and Applications, 2002, p. 116–126.Google Scholar
  3. Bruel, P.V. and V. Kjaer, 2002, Environmental Noise, Denmark.\%20Noise\%20Booklet.pdf, Access date 25-09-06.
  4. Butler, D., 2004, Noise management: Sound and vision. Nature, 427(6974): 480–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis, B.M., 1987, Uses and abuses of cross-validation in geostatistics. Math. Geol. (19, pages 241–248).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. FIELDS, 2006, U.S.EPA, FIELDS Rapid Assessment Tools., Access Date: 30-12-06
  7. GRASS, 2007,, Access Date: 15-9-07
  8. Kluijver de Henk and Stoter, J., 2003, Noise mapping and GIS: optimising quality and efficiency of noise effect studies. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 27(1): 85–102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kurakula, V., 2007, A GIS-Based Approach for 3D Noise Modelling Using 3D City Models, MSc thesis, ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands, GEM thesis number: 2005-04Google Scholar
  10. Ledoux, H., and M. Christopher, 2004, An efficient natural neighbour interpolation algorithm for geoscientific modelling, in: Developments in Spatial Data Handling-11th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Springer, editor: Fisher, Peter F., pages 97–108Google Scholar
  11. Silvia R, Ricardo H, Luis C J, 2003, Evaluation and prediction of noise pollution levels in urban areas of Cdiz (Spain). Acoustical Society of America Journal: Volume 114, pp-2439–2439.Google Scholar
  12. Vosselman, G., Kessels, P. and Gorte, B., 2005, The utilisation of airborne laser scanning for mapping. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 6(3–4): 177–186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. VROM, 1999, Handleiding Meten en Rekenen Industrielawaai (calculation and measurement methods industry noise). Ministry of Housing, Spatial Development and the Environment. (In Dutch)Google Scholar
  14. VROM, 2004, Regeling omgevingslawaai, bijlage 3 Karteringsvoorschriften weg-en railverkeerslawaai (calculation method for producing strategic noise maps). Ministry of Housing, Spatial Development and the Environment. (In Dutch)Google Scholar
  15. Watson, D. F. Contouring: A guide to the analysis and display of spatial data. Pergamon Press (1992).Google Scholar
  16. Wing, K., Kwong, 2006, Visualisation of Complex Noise Environment by Virtual Reality Technologies, Environment Protection Department (EPD), Hong Kong.\_CWLaw.pdf, Access Date: 30-01-07.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jantien Stoter
    • 1
  • Henk de Kluijver
    • 2
  • Vinaykumar Kurakula
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Geo Information ProcessingITC EnschedeEnschedethe Netherlands
  2. 2.dBvisionUtrechtthe Netherlands
  3. 3.L.I.G ‘B’ 543HyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations