Advertisement

Cognitive Aspects of Tacit Knowledge and Cultural Diversity

  • Riccardo Viale
  • Andrea Pozzali
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 64)

Summary. Tacit knowledge is pervasive in many aspects of human life. In the past it was analyzed mainly as behavioral skill and know-how in practical knowledge such as craftsmanship. Afterwhile it was also applied to more intellectual skills such as piano playing and science. But this interpretation of tacit knowledge lacks to include fundamental cognitive dimensions such as background knowledge and implicit cognitive rules. The first deals with cultural values and principles that drive our interpretation of the reality. The second deals with the inferential rules that drive our reasoning and decision making processes. In the last ten years Cognitive Anthropology has collected a great amount of data showing deep differences between westerner (mainly American) and easterner (mainly Chinese) way of thinking. In our opinion these differences are based on a different tacit background knowledge that causes different implicit cognitive rules.

Keywords

Tacit Knowledge True Belief Implicit Memory Implicit Learning Cognitive Aspect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Polanyi, M.: Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-critical Philosophy. Rout-ledge & Kegan Paul, Oxford (1958)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Polanyi, M.: The Tacit Dimension. Doubleday, New York (1967)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ryle, G.: The Concept of Mind. Chicago University Press, Chicago (1949)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson, J.: The Architecture of Cognition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1983)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gorman, M.: Types of knowledge and their roles in technology transfer. Journal of Technology Transfer 27 (2002) 219-231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnson, B., Lorenz, E., Lundvall, B.: Why all this fuss about codified and tacit knowledge? Industrial and Corporate Change 11 (2002) 245-262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ziman, J.: Reliable Knowledge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1979)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lehrer, K.: Theory of Knowledge. Routledge, Oxford (1990)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dancy, J., Sosa, E., eds.: TA Companion to Epistemology. Basil Blackwell, Oxford (1992)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacKenzie, D., Spinardi, G.: Tacit knowledge, weapons design and the unin-vention of nuclear weapons. American Journal of Sociology 101 (1995) 44-99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vincenti, W.: What Engineers Know and How They Know It. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1990)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Searle, J.: The Rediscovery of the Mind. MIT Press, Cambridge (1992)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Searle, J.: The Construction of Social Reality. Free Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berger, P., Luckmann, T.: The Social Construction of Reality. A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Doubleday, New York (1966)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Woolcock, M.: Social capital and economic development: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society 27(2) (1998) 151-208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Granovetter, M.: Economic action and social structure: the problem of embed-dedness. American Journal of Sociology 49 (1985) 323-334Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saxenian, A.: Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lawson, C., Lorenz, E.: Collective learning, tacit knowledge and regional inno-vative capacity. Regional Studies 33 (1999) 305-317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chomsky, N.: Knowledge of Language. Praeger, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chomsky, N.: Reflections on Language. Fontana, Glasgow (1975)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Damasio, A.: The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. William Heinemann, London (1999)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reber, A.: Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge. An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1993)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cleeremans, A.: Implicit learning in the presence of multiple cues. In: Proceed-ings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (1995)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cleeremans, A., Destrebecqz, A., Boyer, M.: Implicit learning: News from the front. Trends in Cognitive Science 2 (1998) 406-416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Atkinson, A., Thomas, M., Cleeremans, A.: Consciousness: Mapping the theo-retical landscape. Trends in Cognitive Science 4 (2000) 372-382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Raichle, M.: The neural correlates of consciousness: An analysis of cognitive skill learning. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Science 353 (1998) 1889-1901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zeman, A.: Consciousness [invited review]. Brain 124 (2001) 1263-1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Broadbent, D., Fitzgerald, P., Broadbent, M.: Implicit and explicit knowledge in the control of complex systems. British Journal of Psychology 77 (1986) 33-50Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cleeremans, A., Jiménez, L.: Fishing with the wrong nets: How the implicit slips through the representational theory of mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1999) 771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gigerenzer, G.: Adaptive Thinking. Rationality in the Real World. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2000)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nonaka, I., Takeuchi, H.: The Knowledge-Creating Company. Oxford University Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cohen, M., Burkhart, R., Dosi, G., Egidi, M., Marengo, L., Warglien, M., Winter, S.: Routines and other recurrent action patterns of organizations: Con-temporary research issues. Industrial and Corporate Change 5 (1996) 653-698Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Collins, H.: Tacit knowledge, trust, and the Q of sapphire. Social Studies of Science 31 (2001) 71-85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nelson, R., Winter, S.: An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1982)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anderson, J.: Skill acquisition: Compilation of weak-method problem solutions. Psychological Review 94 (1987) 192-210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Passingham, R.: Functional organisation of the motor system. In Frackowiak, R., Friston, K., Frith, C., Dolan, R., Mazziotta, J., eds.: Human Brain Function. Academic Press (2006)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Petersen, S., van Mier, H., Fiez, J., Raichle, M.: The effects of practice on the functional anatomy of task performance. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. (1998) 853-60Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Berry, D.: The problem of implicit knowledge. Expert Systems: The Interna-tional Journal of Knowledge Engineering 4 (1987) 144-151Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Berry, D., Broadbent, D.: Interactive tasks and the implicit-explicit distinction. British Journal of Psychology 79 (1998) 251-272Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berry, D., Dienes, Z.: The relationship between implicit memory and implicit learning. British Journal of Psychology 82 (1991) 359-373Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dienes, Z., Berry, D.: Implicit learning: Below the subjective threshold. Psy-chonomic Bulletin Review 4 (1997) 3-23Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Viale, R.: Introduction: Local or universal principles of reasoning? In Viale, R., Andler, D., Hirschfeld, L., eds.: Biological and Cultural Bases of Human Infer-ence. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. (2006)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Spelke, E., Phillips, A., Woodward, A.: Infants’ knowledge of object motion and human action. In Sperber, D., Premack, D., Premack, A., eds.: Causal Cognition. Oxford University Press (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sperber, D., Premack, D., Premack, A.: Causal cognition. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1995)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Keil, F.: The growth of causal understandings of natural kinds. In Sperber, D.e.a., ed.: Causal cognition. Oxford (1995)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gelman, R.: First principles organize attention to and learning about relevant data: Number and the animate-inanimate distinction as examples. Cognitive Sciences 14 (1990) 79-106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Viale, R., Pozzali, A.: Tacit Knowledge and Cognition (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nisbett, R., Masuda, T.: Culture and point of view. In Viale, R., Andler, D., Hirschfeld, L., eds.: Biological and Cultural Bases of Human Inference. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. (2006)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nisbett, R., Peng, K., Choi, I., Norenzayan, A.: Culture and systems of thought: Holistic vs. analytic cognition. Psychological review 108 (2001) 291-310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nisbett, R.: The Geography of Thought. The Free Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Norenzayan, A.: Cultural variation in reasoning. In Viale, R., Andler, D., Hirschfeld, L., eds.: Biological and Cultural Bases of Human Inference. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. (2006)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Viale, R., Pozzali, A., Passerini, G.: Sociocognitive Models in Academic and Industrial Research (forthcoming) Fondazione Rosselli, www.fondazionerosselli.it.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo Viale
    • 1
  • Andrea Pozzali
    • 1
  1. 1.Fondazione RosselliTurin and Universitàa degli Studi di Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations