Controllers in Adaptronics

  • V. Rao
  • R. Damle
  • S. Sana


Chapter 4 covers the important topic of ‘controllers in adaptronics’, beginning with a presentation of adaptive and robust control algorithms using conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) techniques. A tested neural network based MRAC design methodology that utilizes the adaptability of neural networks to compensate for the time varying dynamic properties of adaptronic structures is then described in detail.


Adaptive Control Controller Parameter Robust Controller Smart Structure Neural Controller 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aström, K., Wittenmark, B.: Adaptive Control. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1989), pp. 105–156Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Narendra, K., Annaswamy, A.: Stable Adaptive Control. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989), pp. 21–28, pp. 182–232, pp. 318–345Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Narendra, K.: Adaptive Control of Dynamical Systems. In: ‘Handbook of Intelligent Control: Neural, Fuzzy and Adaptive Approaches’, White, D., Sofge, D., Van Nostrand Reinhold (Eds.), New York, NY (1992)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Narendra, K., Duarte, M.: Combined Direct and Indirect Adaptive Control of Plants with a Relative Degree Greater than One. Technical Report #8715., Center for Systems Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT (November 1987)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Isermann, R.: Digital Control Systems. Springer-Verlag, Vol. 1: ‘Fundamentals, Deterministic Control’; 2nd rev. ed. (1989); Vol. 2: ‘Stochastic Control, Adaptive Control Multivariable Control, Adaptive Control, Applications’; 2nd rev. ed. (1991)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rao, V., Damle, R., Tebbe, C., Kern, F.: The Adaptive Control of Smart Structures using Neural Networks. Smart Materials and Structures, No. 3 (1994), pp. 354–366Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, F., Khalil, H.K.: Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Systems using Neural Networks – A Dead-Zone Approach. Proc. Amer. Control Conf. (1990), pp. 667–672Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen, F.: Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Systems using Neural Networks. A Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. Elec. Eng., Michigan State University (1990)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tzirkel-Hancock, E., Fallside, F.: Stable Control of Nonlinear Systems using Neural Networks. Tech. Report CUED/F-INFENG/TR.81, Cambridge University. Eng. Dept. (July 1991)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Narendra, K., Parthasarathy, K.: Identification and Control of Dynamical Systems Using Neural Networks. IEEE Trans. Neural Networks (March 1990), pp. 4–27Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoskins, D.A.: Neural Network Based Model-Reference Adaptive Control. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Washington, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, MI (1990)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoskins, D.A., Hwang, J.N., Vagners, J.: Iterative Inversion of Neural Networks and Its Application to Adaptive Control. IEEE Trans. Neural Networks (March 1992), pp. 292–301Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Damle, R., Lashlee, R., Rao, V., Kern, F.: Identification and Robust Control of Smart Structures using Artificial Neural Networks. Int. J. Smart Struct. Materials, vol. 3, no. 1 (March 1994), pp. 35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lashlee, R., Butler, R., Rao, V., Kern, F.: Robust Control of Flexible Structures Using Multiple Shape Memory Alloy Actuators. North American Conf. on Smart Structures and Materials, Albuquerque, NM (Feb. 1993)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Butler, R., Rao, S.V.: Identification and control of two-dimensional smart structures using distributed sensors. Proc. North American Conf. on Smart Structures and Materials, San Diego, CA, SPIE 2442 (March 1995), pp. 58–68Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Intel 80170NX Electrically Trainable Analog Neural Network Data Book. (June 1991)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Garcia, C.E., Morari, M.: Internal Model Control – Multivariable Control Law Computation and Tuning. Industrial Engineering Chemical Process Design and Development, 24 (1985), pp. 484–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    OPTIMIZATION TOOLBOX Users Guide. The MathWorks Inc. (November 1990)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balas, G.J., Doyle, J.C.: Identification of flexible structures for robust control. Proc. Amer. Control Conf., 3 (1989), pp. 2566–2571Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Campbell, M.E.: Identification and parameter estimation for control design. IFAC 13th Triennial World Congress (1996), pp. 209–214Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Campbell, M.E., Crawley, E.F.: Development of Structural Uncertainty Models. J. Guidance, Control and Dynamics, 20, no. 5 (1997) pp. 841–849Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Campbell, M.E., Grocott, S.C.O.: Parametric uncertainty model for control design and analysis. IEEE Trans. Control Systems Technol., 7, no. 1 (1999), pp. 85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boulet, B., Francis, B.A., Hughes, PC., Hong, T.: Uncertainty modeling and experiments in H control of large flexible space structures. IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technol., 5, no. 5 (1997), pp. 504–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cockburn, J.C., Morton, B.G.: Linear fractional representations of uncertain systems. Automatica, 30, no. 7 (1997), pp. 1263–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith, R.S., Chu, C.-C., Fanson, J.L.: The design of H controllers for an experimental non-collocated flexible structure problem. IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technol., 2, no. 2 (June 1994), pp. 101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lashlee, R., Rao, V.S., Kern, F.J.: Mixed H 2 /H Optimal Control of Smart Structures. Proc. 33rd Conf. on Decision and Control, Lake Buena Vista, FL (1994), pp. 115–119Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Butler, R., Rao, V.S., Sana, S.: Design of Robust Controllers for Smart Structural Systems with Actuator Saturation. J. of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 8, no. 9 (1997), pp. 721–811Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Balas, G.J., Doyle, J.C.: Control of lightly damped, flexible modes in the controller crossover region. J. of Guidance, Control & Dynamics, 17, no. 2 (1994), pp. 370–377Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Balas, G.J., Young, P.M.: Control design for variations in structural natural frequencies. J. of Guidance, Control & Dynamics, 18, no. 2 (1995), pp. 325–332Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Joshi, S.M., Kelkar, A.G.: Inner loop control of supersonic aircraft in the presence of aeroelastic modes. IEEE Trans. on control systems technol., 6, no. 6 (1998), pp. 730–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    How, J.P., Hall, S.R., Haddad, W.M.: Robust Controllers for the Middeck Active Control Experiment using Popov Controller Synthesis. IEEE Trans. on Control System Technol., 2, no. 2 (1994), pp. 73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    How, J.P., Collins, E.G., Haddad, W.M.: Optimal Popov controller analysis and synthesis for systems with real parameter uncertainties. IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technol., 4, no. 2 (1996), pp. 200–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Rao
  • R. Damle
  • S. Sana

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations