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Hirnstimulation — Historischer Überblick

  • Christian W. Hess

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Frühe Versuche, das Hirn elektrisch zu reizen, waren wegen methodischen Unzulänglichkeiten zu wenig konklusiv, um eine zerebrale elektrische Erregbarkeit eindeutig zu postulieren. So beschrieb z. B. der v. a. anatomisch wegweisende Turiner Luigi Rolando in seiner berühmten 1809 in Sardinien (das Piemont war von Napoleon besetzt) erschienen Arbeit — Saggio sopra la vera struttura del cervello dell’uomo e degli animali e sopra le funzioni del sistema nervoso — Reizversuche mit galvanischem Strom an dem nach ihm benannten präzentralen Gyrus von verschiedenen Haustieren (Capparoni u. Rolando 1928). Wegen den von ihm verursachten kortikalen Läsionen zögerte er aber, die induzierten Bewegungseffekte als elektrisch bedingt zu interpretieren. So herrschte bis weit ins vorletzte Jahrhundert hinein der Glaube, dass das Gehirn elektrisch unerregbar sei. Gustav Fritsch und (Julius) Eduard Hitzig in Berlin waren die ersten, welche dieses physiologische Dogma klar widerlegten und durch ausgedehnte Versuche an der freigelegten Hirnrinde von Hunden die physiologischen Grundlagen für die späteren Reizversuche am motorischen Kortex schufen (Fritsch u. Hitzig 1870; Abb. 1.1).

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian W. Hess
    • 1
  1. 1.Klinik und Poliklinik für NeurologieInselspitalBernSchweiz

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