Advertisement

Large waves caused by oceanic impacts of meteorites

  • Robert Weiss
  • Kai Wünnemann

Abstract

Impact craters can be observed on all terrestrial planets and their larger satellites. Basically every body in the solar system with a solid crust, no matter how small it is, exhibits evidence of impacts in the past. For example, the Moon provides an excellent data base of impact craters. However, the major fraction of impact events occurred between 4.6 and 3.9 Billion years ago. The impact frequency at that time was ∼ 100 times larger than it has been ever since. Figure 1 shows the craters Ptolomaeus, Alphonsus, Arzahchel and Albetegnius. The image depicts that impact craters vary form large basins of several 100 kilometres in diameter (the largest impact basin is Valhalla with 4000 km in diameter on the Jovian satellite Callisto) to structures that are only several 10’s of meters in diameter.

Keywords

Shock Wave Impact Crater Crater Formation Meteorite Impact Hugoniot Curve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Grieve RAF, Robertson PB and Dence MR (1981) Constraints on the formation of ring impact structures, based on terrestrial data. In: Constraints on the formation of ring impact structures, based on terrestrial data.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Gersonde R, Deutsch A, Ivanov BA, Kyte F T (2002) Oceanic impacts — a growing field of fundamental science. Deep Sea Research 49:951–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Abels A, Plado J, Pesonen LJ, Lehtinen M (2002) The impact cratering record in Fennoscandia. In: Impacts in Precambrian Shields. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Glikson AY (1999) Oceanic mega impacts and crustal evolution. Geology 27:387–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Gault DE, Quaide WL Oberbeck VR (1968) Impact cratering mechanics and structures In: French BM, Short NM (eds) Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials. Mono Book Co.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Turtle EP, Pierazzo E, Collins GS, Osinski GR, Melosh HJ, Morgan JV, Reimold WU, Spray JG (2005) Impact structures: What does crater diameter mean? Geological Society of Americal special paper 384: in press.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Melosh HJ (1989) Impact Cratering: A Geological Process. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Scott TE, Nielsen KC (1991) The effects of porosity on the brittle-ductile transition in sandstone. J. of Geophys Res 96:405–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Jaeger JC, Cook NGW (1969) Fundamentals of reock mechanics. Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Lundborg N (1968) Strength of rock-like materials. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min Sci. 5:427–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Stesky RM, Brace WF, Riley DK, Robin PYF (1974) Driction in faulted rock at high temperature and presuure. Tectonphysics 23:177–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Collins GS, Melosh HJ, Ivanov BA (2004) Modeling damage and deformation in impact simulations. Meteoritics Planet. Sci. 39:217–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Melosh HJ, Ryan EV, Asphaug E (1992) Dynamic fragmentation in impacts: Hydrocode simulations of laboratory impact. J Geophys Res. 97:14735–14759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Ivanov BA, Deniem D, Neukum G (1997) Implementation of dynamic strength models into 2D hydrocodes: Applications for atmosphereic breakup and impact cratering. Int. J. Impact Engin. 20:411–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Artemieva NA, Ivanov BA (2004) Launch of martian meteorites in oblique impacts. Icarus 171:84–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Stöffler D, Artemieva NA, Pierazzo E (2004) Modeling the Ries-Steinheim impact event and the formation of the moldavite strewn field. Meteoritics Planet. Sci. 37:1893–1908Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Wünnemann K, Morgan JV, Jödicke H (2005) Is Ries crater typical for its size? An analysis based upon old and new geophysical data and numerical modeling. In Kenkmann T, Hörz F, Deutsch A (eds) Large meteorite impacts III. Geol. Soc. America Special Paper 384:67–83Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Melosh HJ, Ivanonv BA (1999) Impact crater collapse. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sci. 27:385–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Pierazzo E, Melosh HJ (2000) Melt production in oblique impacts. Icarus 145:252–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Chandrasekhar S (1981) Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability. Dover Publications Inc., (New York) Chap. 2, p9–16Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Ferziger JH, Peric M (1997) Computational methods of fluid dynamics. Springer (Berlin, Heildeberg) Chap. 1, p1–20Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Melosh HJ (1989) Impact cratering: Geological process. Oxford University Press (New York) 245ppGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Tillotson JH (1962) Metallic equation of state for hypervelocity impacts. Technical Report General Atomic Report GA-3216Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Thompson SL, Lauson HS (1972) Improvements in the chart-D radiation-hydrodynamic code III: Revised analytical equation of state. Technical Report SC-RR-61 0714. Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM)Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Ahrens TJ, O’Keefe JD (1977) Equation of state and impact-induced shockwave attenuation on the moon. In Roddy DJ, Pepin DJ, Merrill RB (eds) Impact and Explosion Cratering. Pergamon (New-York) 639–656Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Zel’dovich YB, Raizer YP (2002) Physics of shock waves and high-temperature hydrodynamic phenomena. In Hayes WD, Probstein RF (eds) Dover Publications (Mineola, New York), 916ppGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Roddy DJ, Schuster SH, Rosenblatt M, Grant LB, Hassig PJ, Kreyenhagen KN (1987) Computer simulation of large asteroid impacts into oceanic and continental sites — preliminary results on atmospheric cratering and ejecta dynamics. Int. J. Impact. Engin 5:525–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    O’Keefe JD, Ahrens TJ (1999) Complex craters: Relationship of stratigraphy and rings to impact conditions. J. Geophys. Res. 104:27091–27104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    O’Keefe JD, Ahrens TJ (1994) Impact-induced melting of planetary surfaces. In Dressler BO, Grieve RAF, Sharpton VL (eds) Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, Special Paper 293: 103–109Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Ivanov BA, Artemieva NA (2002) Numerical modeling of fromation of large impact craters. In Koeberl C, MacLeod KG (eds) Catastrophic events and mass extinctions: Impacts and beyond. Geol. Soc. America Special Paper 356:619–630Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Shuvalov VV, Dypvik H, Tsikalas F (2002) Numerical simulations of the Mjolnir marine impact crater. J Geophys. Res. 107:DOI10.1029/2001JE001698Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Wünnemann K, Lange MA (2002) Numerical modeling of impact-induced modifications of the deep-sea floor. Deep-Sea Res. II 49:669–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    McGlaun JM, Thompson SL (1990) CTH: A three-dimensional shock wave physics code. Int. J. Impact Engin. 10:351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Shuvalov VV (1999) Multi-dimensional hydrodynamic code SOVA for interfacial flow: Applications to the thermal layer effect. Shock Wave 9: 382–390Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Anderson Jr CE (1987) An overview of the theory of hydrocodes. Int J Impact Engin 5:33–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Knowles CP, Brode HL (1977) The theory of cratering phenomena, an overview. In Roddy DJ, Pepin DJ, Merrill RB (eds) Impact and Explosion Cratering. Pergamon (New-York) 369–395Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Holsapple KA, Schmidt RM (1982) On the scaling of crater dimensions II — Impact. J Geophys Res 87:1849–1870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Holsapple KA, Schmidt RM (1987) Point-source solution and coupling parameters in cratering mechanics. J. Geopys. Res. 92:6350–6376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Holsapple KA (1993) The scaling of impact processes in planetary science. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 21:333–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Schmidt RM, Holsapple KA (1987) Some recent advances in the scaling of impact and explosion cratering. Int. J. Imp. Engin 5:543–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Gault DE (1974) Impact cratering. In: Greeley R, Schulz PH (eds) A primer in lunar geology. Moffett Field: NASA Ames Research Center. 137–175Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Dence MR (1968) Shock zoning at Canadian craters: Petrography and structural implications, in French BM, Short NM (eds) Shock metamorphism of natural materials. Baltimore, Maryland, Mono Book Cooperation 169–184Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Stöffler D, Langenhorst, F (1994) Shock metamorphism of quartz in nature and experiment: I. Basic observations and theory. Meteoritics 29:155–181Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Turtle EP, Pierazzo E, Collins GS, Osinski GR, Melosh HJ, Morgan JV, Reimold WU (2005) Impact structures: What does crater diamter mean? In Kenkmann T, Hörz F, Deutsch A (eds) Large meteorite impacts III. Geol. Soc. America Special Paper 384:1–24Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Pike RJ (1988) Geomorphology of Impact Craters on Mercury. In: Mercury, University of Arizona Press. 165–273Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Stöffler D (1972) Deformation and transformation of rock-forming minerals by natural and experimental shock processes. Fortschritte der Mineralogie 49:50–113Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Jeanloz R (1980) Shock effects in olivine and implications for Hugoniot data. J Geophys Res 85:3163–3176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Roddy DJ, Davis LK (1977) Shatter cones formed in large-scale experimental explosion craters. In: Roddy DJ, Pepin, RO, Merrill RB (eds) Impact and explosion cratering, Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    O’Keef JD, Ahrens TJ (1982) The interaction of the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction bolide with the atmosphere, ocean and solid Earth. Geol Soc Amer, 190:103–120Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Wünnemann, K, Ivanov B. (2003) Numerical Modelling of impact crater depth-diameter dependence in an acoustically fluidized target. Planetary and Space Science 51:831–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Melosh HJ (1977) Crater modification by gravity: A mechanical analysis of slumping. In: Roddy DJ, Pepin, RO, Merrill RB (eds) Impact and explosion cratering, Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Wünnemann K (2001) Die Numerisch Behandlung von Impaktprozessen — Kraterbildung, stosswelleninduzierte Krustenmodifikationen und ozeanische Enschlagsereignisse. PhD Thesis at Institut of Geopyhsics, Westfälische Wilhelms Universtität.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Amsden AA, Rupel HM, Hirt CW (1080) SALE: a simplified ALE computer program for fluids at all speeds. Los Alamos National Laboratories, LA-8095Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Wünnemann K, Collins GS, Melosh HJ (2006) A strain-based porosity model for use in hydrocode simulations of impacts and implications for the transient-crater growth in porous targets. Icarus 180:514–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Buttkus B (2000) Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Snieder R, Trampert J (2000) Linear and nonlinear inverse problems. In: Dermanis A, Grün A, Sanso F (eds) Geomatic methods for the analysis of data in the earth sciences. Lecture notes in earth sciences, vol 95. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Montagner, JP, Nataf HC (1986) On the inversion of the azimuthal anisotropy of surface waves. J Geophys Res 91:511–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Ross DW (1977) Lysosomes and storage diseases. MA Thesis, Columbia University, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Weiss
    • 1
  • Kai Wünnemann
    • 2
  1. 1.Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and OceanUniversity of Washington-NOAA Center for Tsunami ResearchSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Mineralogie, Museum für NaturkundeHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations