Advertisement

Modified Gravity Without Dark Matter

  • Robert Sanders
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 720)

Abstract

On an empirical level, the most successful alternative to dark matter in bound gravitational systems is the modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND, proposed by Milgrom. Here I discuss the attempts to formulate MOND as a modification of General Relativity. I begin with a summary of the phenomenological successes of MOND and then discuss the various covariant theories that have been proposed as a basis for the idea. I show why these proposals have led inevitably to a multi-field theory. I describe in some detail TeVeS, the tensor-vector-scalar theory proposed by Bekenstein, and discuss its successes and shortcomings. This lecture is primarily pedagogical and directed to those with some, but not a deep, background in General Relativity.

Keywords

Dark Matter Dark Energy Cosmic Microwave Background Rotation Curve Spiral Galaxy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D.N. Spergel et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl., 148, 175 (2003) [astro-h/0302209].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Perlmutter et al., (1999), Astrophys. J., 517, 565.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P.M. Garnevitch et al.’ Astrophys. J., 493, 53 (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.L. Tonry et al., Astrophys. J., 594, 1 (2003) [astro-ph/0305008].Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.G. Sanche et al., Mon. Not. RAS, (in press,2005).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D.J. Eisenstein et al., Astrophys. J., 633, 560 (2005).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Armendariz-Picon, V. Mukhanov and P.J. Steinhardt, Phys. Rev., D 63, 103510 (2001).ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Capozziello, S. Carloni and A. Troisi, astro-ph/0303041 (2003).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.M. Carroll, V. Duvvuri, M. Trodden and M.S. Turner, astro-ph/0306438 (2003).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Dvali, G. Gabadadaze and M. Porrati, Phys. Lett., B 485, 208 (2000) [hep-th/0005016].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Zwicky, Helv. Phys. Acta, 6, 110 (1933).MATHADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Bosma The Distribution and Kinematics of Neutral Hydrogen in Spiral Galaxies of Various Morphological Types, PhD Dissertaion, Univ.of Groningen, The Netherlands (1978).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.G. Begeman, Astron. Astrophys. 223, 4 (1989).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.R. Bond and A.S. Szalay, Astrophys. J., 274, 443 (1983).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. de Lucia et al., Mon. Not. RAS, 348, 333 (2004).CrossRefADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W.J.G. de Blok, S.S. McGaugh and V.C. Rubin, Astron. J., 122, 2396 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Milgrom, Astrophys. J. 270, 365 (1983a).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Milgrom, Astrophys. J. 270, 371 (1983b).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Milgrom, Astrophys. J. 270, 384 (1983c).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.T. Wilson, ed. Continents Adrift and Continents Aground Scientific American, W. H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco (1976).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.H. Sanders and S.S. McGaugh, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 40, 263 (2002).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.D. Bekenstein and Phys. Rev. D, 70, 083509 (astro-ph/0403694) (2004).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.S. McGaugh and W.J.G. de Blok, Astrophys. J., 499, 66 (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S.S. McGaugh, J.M. Schombert, G.D. Bothun, W.J.G. de Blok, Astrophys. J., 533, L99 (2000).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R.H. Sanders M.A.W. Verheijen, Astrophys. J., 503, 97 (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K.G. Begeman, A.H. Broeils and R.H. Sanders, Mon. Not. RAS, 249, 523 (1991).ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Casertano and J.H. van Gorkom, Astron. J., 101, 1231 (1991).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.P. Ostriker and P.J.E. Peebles, Astrophys. J. 186, 467 (1973).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    K.C. Freeman, Astrophys. J. 160, 811 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Milgrom, Astrophys. J. 287, 571 (1984).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S.M. Faber and R.E. Jackson, Astrophys. J. 204, 668 (1976).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    R.A. Fish, Astrophys. J. 139, 284 (1964).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R.H. Sanders, Mon. Not. RAS, 313, 767 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A.J. Romanowsky et al., Science, 301, 1696 (2003).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Milgrom, R.H. Sanders, Astrophys. J., 599, L25 (2003).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    E.F. Bell and R.S. de Jong, Astrophys. J. 550, 212 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Sancisi: IAU Symp. 220, Eds, S.D. Ryder, D.J. Pisano, M.A. Walker and K.C. Freeman: San Francisco, ASP, p. 233 (2004).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.A. Zwaan, J.M. van der Hulst and A. Bosma, (in preparation 2005).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R.H. Sanders, Astrophys. J., 512, L23 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Aguirre, J. Schaye and E. Quataert, Astrophys. J., 561, 550 (2002).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    R.H. Sanders, Mon. Not. RAS, 342, 901 (2003).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    R.H. Sanders, Mon. Not. RAS, 363, 459 (2005).ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M.E. Soussa, R.P. Woodard, Phys. Lett. B578, 253 (2004).ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    C. Brans and R.H. Dicke, Phys. Rev., 124, 925 (1961).MATHCrossRefADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J.D. Bekenstein, M. Milgrom, Astrophys. J., 286, 7 (1984).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    J.D. Bekenstein, Second Canadian Conference on General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics, eds. Coley, A., Dyer, C., Tupper, T., p. 68. Singapore, World Scientific (1988).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    J.D. Bekenstein: Developments in General Relativity, Astrophysics and Quantum Theory, A Jubilee in Honour of Nathan Rosen, eds. F.I. Cooperstock, L.P. Horwitz, J. Rosen, p. 155, Bristol, IOP Publishing (1990).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J.D. Bekenstein and R.H. Sanders, Astrophys. J. 429, 480 (1994).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J.D. Bekenstein, Proceedings of the Sixth Marcel Grossman Meeting on General Relativity, eds. H. Sato & T. Nakamura, p. 905, Singapore, World Scientific (1992).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    W.-T. Ni, Astrophys. J., 176, 769 (1972).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    R.H. Sanders, Astrophys. J. 480, 492 (1997).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    D.L. Lee, A.P. Lightman, W.-T. Ni, Phys. Rev., D10, 1685 (1974).ADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    C. Skordis, D.F. Mota, P.G. Ferreira and C. Boehm, astro-ph/0505519 (accepted PRL 2005).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    H.-S. Zhao, D.J. Bacon, A.N. Taylor K. Horne, Mon. Not. RAS(in press, 2006), astro-ph/0509590.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    R.H. Sanders, Mon. Not. RAS, 241, 135 (1989).ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    H.-S. Zhao, B. Famaey, Astrophys. J., 638, L9, astro-ph/0512435 (2005).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    C.M. Will, Living Rev. Rel., 4, 4 (2001).MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    D. Giannios, Phys. Rev., D71, 103511 [astro-ph/0502122] (2005).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. Múller, K. Nordtvedt and D. Vokrouhlický, Phys. Rev., D54, 5927 (1996).ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J.D. Anderson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 2858 (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    R.H. Sanders,Mon. Not. RAS, submitted (2006).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    J.D. Bekenstein and R.H. Sanders, astro-ph/0509519, (2005).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    W.H. Press, B.S. Ryden and D.N. Spergel, 1990, Phys. Rev. Lett., 65, 1084 (1990).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. Milgrom, Annals Phys 229, 384 (1994).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. Milgrom, Phys. Lett. A 253, 273 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    M. Milgrom, astro-ph/0510117 (2005).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Sanders
    • 1
  1. 1.Kapteyn Astronomical InstituteGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations