Complex Vocal Behavior and Cortical-Medullar Projection

  • Kazuo Okanoya
  • Sayaka Hihara
  • Naoko Tokimoto
  • Yasuko Tobari
  • Atsushi Iriki
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3609)


We argue that the intentional control of vocal organ is the most basic predisposition for vocal learning and thus for language acquisition. Anatomical substrates for intentional vocal control are the direct cortical-medullar projections that connect face motor cortecies and the nucleus retro-ambiguus. We ask how such projections may be reinforced in non-vocal learners including macaque monkeys and rodents by behavioral manipulations. We hypothesize how such connections may be prepared in humans.


Zebra Finch Japanese Macaque Intentional Control Vocal Learning Bengalese Finch 
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Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuo Okanoya
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Sayaka Hihara
    • 3
    • 4
  • Naoko Tokimoto
    • 1
  • Yasuko Tobari
    • 1
  • Atsushi Iriki
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Okanoya Lab., Faculty of Letters, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522Japan
  2. 2.Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi Center Building, 4-1-8, Honcho, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 332-0012Japan
  3. 3.Cognitive Neurobiology Lab., Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549Japan
  4. 4.Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198Japan

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