Effects of Icon Concreteness and Complexity on Semantic Transparency: Younger vs. Older Users
The semantic transparency of icons in mobile devices was investigated using 48 icons for 12 mobile phone functions. Icons included original ones as well as icons specifically designed for experimental purposes. In order to determine the impact of age, each 10 younger and 10 older adults were examined. Having been acquainted with a reference function, participants had to decide for each of four icons shown on a display as fast as possible whether they represented the respective function. Speed and accuracy of responses were used as dependent variables. Though older adults generally responded slower than younger ones, the very same effects of icon concreteness and complexity showed up in both age groups. Real phone icons did not yield a better performance indicating a suboptimal design. Overall, use of icons in mobile devices in principle can be recommended for users within a wide range of age, if icon design obeys ergonomic rules.
KeywordsIcon recognition mobile devices ageing concreteness complexity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Pappachan, P., Ziefle, M.: Cross-Cultural Comprehensibility of Icons in Mobile-Computer-Interaction. Behaviour and Information Technology (in press)Google Scholar
- 2.McDougall, S.J.P., Curry, M.B., De Bruijn, O.: Exploring the Effects of Icon Characteristics on User Performance: The Role of Icon Concreteness, Complexity, and Distinctiveness. Journal of Experimental Psychology 6(4), 291–306 (2000)Google Scholar
- 3.Rogers, Y.: Icon Design for the user interface. International Reviews of Ergonomics 3, 129–154 (1989)Google Scholar
- 6.Fisk, A.D., Rogers, W.A. (eds.): Handbook of human factors and the older adult. Academic Press, San Diego (1997)Google Scholar
- 7.Park, D., Schwarz, N.: Cognitive Aging. Buchanan, Philadelphia (1999)Google Scholar
- 8.Ziefle, M., Schroeder, U., Strenk, J., Michel, T.: How young and older users master the use of hyperlinks in small screen devices. In: Proc. SIGCHI 2007, pp. 307–316. ACM Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar
- 9.Park, D.C., Puglisi, T., Smith, A.D., Dudley, N.: Cue Utilization and Encoding Specifity in Picture Recognition by Older Adults. Journal of Gerontology 42, 421–425 (1987)Google Scholar
- 10.Smith, A.D., Park, D.C., Cherry, K., Berkovsky, K.: Age differences in memory for concrete and abstract pictures. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 45, 205–209 (1990)Google Scholar