Exploring the Effectiveness of Normative i* Modelling: Results from a Case Study on Food Chain Traceability

  • Alberto Siena
  • Neil Maiden
  • James Lockerbie
  • Kristine Karlsen
  • Anna Perini
  • Angelo Susi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5074)


This paper evaluates the effectiveness of an extension to i* modelling – normative i* modelling – during the requirements analysis for new socio-technical systems for food traceability. The i* focus on modelling systems as networks of heterogeneous, inter-dependent actors provides limited support for modelling system-wide properties and norms, such as laws and regulations, that also influence the specification of socio-technical systems. In this paper we introduce an extension to i* to model and analyse norms, then apply it to model laws and regulations applicable to European food traceability systems. We report an analysis of the relative strengths and weaknesses of this extended form of i* with its traditional forms, and use results to answer two research questions about the usefulness and usability of the i* modelling extension.


Good Manufacture Practice Requirement Engineer Requirement Elicitation Normative Context Food Traceability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Breaux, T.D., Vail, M.W., Anton, A.I.: Towards Regulatory Compliance: Extracting Rights and Obligations to Align Requirements with Regulations. In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE 2006), pp. 49–58. IEEE Society Press, Los Alamitos (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dardenne, A., van Lamsweerde, A., Fickas, S.: Goal-Directed Requirements Acquisition. Science of Computer Programming 20, 3–50 (1993)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Darimont, R., Lemoine, M.: Goal-oriented analysis of regulations. In: International Workshop on Regulations Modelling and their Verification & Validation (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ghanavati, S., Amyot, D., Peyton, L.: A Requirements Management Framework for Privacy Compliance. In: The 10th Workshop on Requirements Engineering (WER 2007), pp. 149–159 (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Giorgini, P., Massacci, F., Mylopoulos, J., Zannone, N.: Requirements Engineering meets Trust Management: Model, Methodology, and Reasoning. In: Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Trust Management (iTrust 2004) (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jones, S.V., Maiden, N.A.M.: RESCUE: An Integrated Method for Specifying Requirements for Complex Socio-Technical Systems. In: Mate, J.L., Silva, A. (eds.) Requirements Engineering for Socio-Technical Systems, pp. 245–265. Ideas Group (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lockerbie, J.A., Maiden, N.A.M.: REDEPEND: Extending i* Modelling into Requirements Processes. In: Proceedings 14th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, pp. 361–362. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maiden, N.A.M., Jones, S.V., Manning, S., Greenwood, J., Renou, L.: Model-Driven Requirements Engineering: Synchronising Models in an Air Traffic Management Case Study. In: Persson, A., Stirna, J. (eds.) CAiSE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3084, pp. 368–383. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maiden, N.A.M., Manning, S., Jones, S., Greenwood, J.: Generating Requirements from Systems Models using Patterns: A Case Study. Requirements Engineering Journal 10(4), 276–288 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    North, D.C.: Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1990)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Perini, A., Susi, A.: Designing a Decision Support System or Integrated Production in Agriculture. An Agent-Oriented approach. Environmental Modelling and Software Journal 19(9) (September 2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Otto, P.N., Antón, A.I.: Addressing Legal Requirements in Requirements Engineering. In: 15th IEEE Inter. Requirements Engineering Conference, pp. 5–13 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Robertson, S., Robertson, J.: Mastering the Requirements Process. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vicente, K.: Cognitive work analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Siena, A.: Engineering Normative Requirements. In: 1st International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS 2007) (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stamper, R., Liu, K., Hafkamp, M., Ades, Y.: Understanding the Role of Signs and Norms in Organisations - a semiotic approach to information systems design. Journal of Behaviour and Information Technology (2000)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sutcliffe, A.G.: Analysing the Effectiveness of Socio-technical Systems with i*, in Requirements Projects: Some Experiences and Lessons. In: Giorgini, M., Mylopoulos, Y. (eds.) Social Modeling for Requirements Engineering. MIT Press, Cambridge (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sutcliffe, A.G., Maiden, N.A.M., Minocha, S., Manuel, D.: Supporting Scenario-Based Requirements Engineering. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 24(12), 1072–1088 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Kralingen, R.: A Conceptual Frame-based Ontology for the Law. In: First International Workshop on Legal Ontologies (1997)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wohlin, C., Runeson, P., Hoest, M., Ohlsson, M., Regnell, B., Wesseln, A.: Experimentation in Software Engineering - An Introduction. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (2000)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yu, E., Mylopoulos, J.M.: Understanding “Why” in Software Process Modelling, Analysis and Design. In: Proceedings, 16th International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 159–168. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Siena
    • 1
  • Neil Maiden
    • 2
  • James Lockerbie
    • 2
  • Kristine Karlsen
    • 2
  • Anna Perini
    • 1
  • Angelo Susi
    • 1
  1. 1.Fondazione Bruno Kessler - IrstTrentoItaly
  2. 2.Centre for HCI DesignCity UniversityLondon 

Personalised recommendations