Advertisement

Water Demand Management as Governance: Lessons from the Middle East and South Africa

  • David B. Brooks
  • Sarah Wolfe

Abstract

Reviews of water demand management in the Middle East and in South Africa, two of the most water-challenged areas of the world, show that water demand management is occurring in almost all nations, but without the breadth or strength that is required by their increasingly difficult water situation. It is not absent as a policy goal, but it remains secondary to supply management and very much secondary to reducing government expenditures. There is therefore great scope for further analytical work on water demand management and even greater scope for work on ways to promote its adoption. What is needed above all is to treat water demand management not just as a technology to apply or a program to deliver but as a form of governance — indeed, a form that is as critical to improving social, economic and environmental conditions as it is to saving water. Application of this governance concept to Israel and Palestine shows the need for new institutions for water demand management, and that both existing and new policies need to be formulated in order for water demand management to play the role that it should.

Keywords

Governance Israel Palestine South Africa water conservation water demand management 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aitken, C. K.; McMahon, T. A.; Wearing, A. J.; Finlayson, B. L., 1994: “Residential water-use — predicting and reducing consumption”, in: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24.2: 136–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alatout, S., 2000: “Water Balances in Palestine: Numbers and Political Culture in the Middle East”, in: Brooks, D. B.; Mehmet, O. (Eds.): Water Balances in the Eastern Mediterranean (Ottawa, Canada: IDRC Books): 59–84.Google Scholar
  3. Allan, J. A., 2002: “Hydro-peace in the Middle East: Why no water wars? A case study of the Jordan River basin”, in: SAIS Review, 22,2 (Summer-Fall): 5–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arntzen, J., 2003: “Incorporation of Water Demand Management in National and Regional Water Policies and Strategies.” Report Prepared for the IUCN South Africa Office. WDM Southern Africa Project, Phase 2 (Pretoria: IUCN, June).Google Scholar
  5. Attia, B. 2004: “Comparative Analysis: Case Studies of Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen and Egypt”, in: IDRC (Ed.): Water Demand Management Forum — Middle East and North Africa: Advocating Alternatives to Supply Management of Water Resources. CD-ROM (Ottawa, Canada: IDRC).Google Scholar
  6. Beaumont, P., 1994: “The myth of water wars and the future of irrigated agriculture in the Middle East”, in: International J. of Water Resources Development, 10,11 (June): 9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker, N.; Lavee, D., 2002: “The effect and reform of water pricing: The Israeli experience”, in: International Journal of Water Resources Development, 8,2 (June): 353–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooks, D. B., 2002: Local Water Management (Ottawa, Canada: IDRC Books).Google Scholar
  9. Brooks, D. B., 2004: Lessons from the Water Demand Management Forums for the Middle East and North Africa. Prepared as part of IDRC’s contribution to the International Water Demand Management Conference in Jordan (Ottawa, Canada: Friends of the Earth Canada).Google Scholar
  10. Brooks, D. B., 2006: “An operational definition of water demand management,” in: International Journal of Water Resources Development, 22,4 (December): 521–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buckle, J.S., 2004: “Water demand management: Philosophy or implementation?” in: Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 43: 25–32.Google Scholar
  12. Chenoweth, J., 2004: “Changing ownership structures in the water supply and sanitation sector”, in: Water International, 29,2 (June): 138–47.Google Scholar
  13. delli Priscoli, J., 2004: “What is public participation in water management and why is it important?”, in: Water International, 29,2 (June): 221–227.Google Scholar
  14. De Oliver, M. 1999: “Attitudes and inaction — a case study of the manifest demographics of urban water conservation”, in: Environment and Behavior, 31,3: 372–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dickerson, C.A.; Thibodeau, R.; Aronson, E.; Miller, D., 1992: “Using cognitive-dissonance to encourage water conservation”, in: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22,11: 841–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Faruqui, N., and Odeh Al-J. 2002: “Greywater reuse in urban agriculture for poverty alleviation: A case study in Jordan”, in: Water International, 27,3 (September): 387–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Forster, S., Interview. February 26th, 2004. Consultant. Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  18. Galloway, G.; Pentland, R.; 2003: Managing Groundwater Resources in the Great Lakes Basin. Working Paper #2, (Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto, Munk Centre for International Studies).Google Scholar
  19. Gleick, P. 2000: “The Human Right to Water”, in: Gleick, P. (Ed.): The World’s Water: 2000–2001, (Washington, DC: Island Press).Google Scholar
  20. Gleick, P. H., 2003: “Global freshwater resources: Soft-path solutions for the 21st century”, in: Science. 302 (28 November): 1524–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grover, B., 2004: “Overview of the Public-private Partnerships in the Domestic Water Supply Sector”, in: IDRC (Ed.): Water Demand Management Forum — Middle East and North Africa: Advocating Alternatives to Supply Management of Water Resources. CD-ROM (Ottawa, Canada: IDRC).Google Scholar
  22. Gumbo, B. P.; van der Zaag, P.; Robinson, L.; Jonker, ?; H. Buckle. “Training needs for water demand management”, in: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 2004, 29 (15-18 SPEC.ISS): 1365–1373.Google Scholar
  23. Hazelton, D.; Nkhuwa, D.; Robinson, P.; Mwendera, E.; Tjijenda, K.; Chavula, G., 2002: Overcoming Constraints to the Implementation of WDM in Southern Africa. Synthesis Report (Pretoria, South Africa: World Conservation Union (IUCN) — SA office).Google Scholar
  24. Hazelton, D., 2004: “Interview”, April 6th, 2004 (Pretoria, South Africa:. TSE Water Services).Google Scholar
  25. Homer-Dixon, T., 2003: “Bringing Ingenuity to Energy”, in: Heintzman, A.; Solomon, E. (Eds.): Fueling the Future (Toronto, Canada; House of Anansi Press).Google Scholar
  26. van der Linde, J.; Buckle, J. S., 2000: Greater Hermanus Water Conservation Programme: A model for water demand management. Unpublished Report (Hermanus)Google Scholar
  27. van der Linde, J., 2004: “Interview”, 10, 11, 17 March (Hermanus, South Africa: Greater Hermanus Municipality).Google Scholar
  28. McKenzie, R. S.; van Rooyen, P.G.; Stoffberg, F. A., 1999: “The importance of water demand management in South Africa”, in: Water Supply. 17,3–4: 113–120.Google Scholar
  29. McKenzie, R. S., 2005: “Interview”, 20 April 20th, 2004 (Pretoria, South Africa:. WRP Engineering).Google Scholar
  30. McQueen, C., Pieters, D., 1998: Greater Hermanus Water Conservation Programme: Residential Opinion Survey (Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, National Water Conservation Campaign).Google Scholar
  31. Moench, M.; Dixit, A. (Eds.), 2004: Adaptive Capacity and Livelihood Resilience: Adaptive strategies for responding to Floods and Droughts in South Asia (Boulder, Colorado: Institute for Social and Environmental Transition).Google Scholar
  32. Naff, T., 1996: “The Long Dark Shadow: Population, Water and Peace in the Middle East”, in: Population and Development (New Delhi, India: Tata Energy Research Institute).Google Scholar
  33. Narain, V., 2004: “Brackets and black boxes: research on water users’ associations”, in: Water Policy, 6,3 (June): 185–196.Google Scholar
  34. Odenaal, P., 2001: “Dynamics of the South African water scene over the last 21 years-a research perspective” Water Sewage and Effluent, 21(5): 24–31.Google Scholar
  35. Preston, G., 1996: “Faxed letter to Mr. James van der Linde at the Hermanus Municipality”, 16 February.Google Scholar
  36. Rothert, S., 2000: “Water conservation and demand management potential in southern Africa: an untapped river”, in: International Journal of Water, 1(1): 118–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saghir, J., 2004: “Reflections on Water Pricing and Tariff Design: Key Principles. Presentation to the Water Valuation Forum”, in: IDRC (Ed.): Water Demand Management Forum-Middle East and North Africa: Advocating Alternatives to Supply Management of Water Resources. CD-ROM (Ottawa, Canada: IDRC).Google Scholar
  38. Singh, M., 2004: “Telephone Interview”, 22 April (Pretoria and Durban, South Africa: City of Durban).Google Scholar
  39. Thompson, S. C.; Stoutemyer, K., 1991: “Water-use as a commons dilemma-the effects of education that focuses on long-term consequences and individual action”, in: Environment and Behavior, 23(3): 314–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Trottier, J., 1999: Hydropolitics in the West Bank and Gaza Strip (Jerusalem: Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs)Google Scholar
  41. Tsinde Development Consultants, 2001: “Evaluation Of The Department Of Water Affairs And Forestry (Dwaf), Head Office Staff — Pretoria, Attitude, Perceptions And Behaviour Towards The Paradigm Of Water Conservation And Water Demand Management”. Report for the Directorate: Water Conservation, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, at: <http://www.dwaf.gov.za/Water-Conservation/WordDownloads/AddendumA.doc>.Google Scholar
  42. Turton, A., 2004: “Interviews”, 6 February; 21 April (Pretoria, South Africa).Google Scholar
  43. Van Hofwegen, P., 2004: “Water Demand Management Forum — Middle East and North Africa: Advocating Alternatives to Supply Management of Water”. Resource Paper delivered to the IDRC Forum on Participatory Irrigation Management, in: IDRC,. CD-ROM (Ottawa, Canada: IDRC).Google Scholar
  44. Whitaker, B., 2004: “Interview”, 11 March (Hermanus, South Africa: Milkwood Communications).Google Scholar
  45. World Conservation Union, 2001: Water Demand Management Programme for Southern Africa: Phase II Inception Report #1. Incorporating Progress Report #1. August 2000-February 2001 (Pretoria, SA: IUCN-South Africa Country Office).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Brooks
    • 1
  • Sarah Wolfe
    • 2
  1. 1.Friends of the Earth CanadaOttawa
  2. 2.Department of Environment and Resource StudiesUniversity of WaterlooWaterloo

Personalised recommendations