Early Reactivation of Basement Faults in Central Zagros (SW Iran): Evidence from Pre-folding Fracture Populations in Asmari Formation and Lower Tertiary Paleogeography

  • Faram Ahmadhadi
  • Olivier Lacombe
  • Jean-Marc Daniel
Part of the Frontiers in Earth Sciences book series (FRONTIERS)


Early reactivation of basement faults and related development of flexures/forced-folds in the Central Zagros are discussed based on fracture populations observed in outcrops and aerial photographs/satellite images and paleogeographic maps. The presence of pre-folding joint sets slightly oblique to anticline axes and observed even within synclines or the occurrence of N-S (and E-W) trending fracture sets near N-S trending basement faults and strongly oblique to cover folds are not compatible with simple fold-related fracture models in this region. These early fractures are proposed to have formed within the cover above deep-seated basement faults in response to the formation of flexures/forced folds whose geometries and orientations may be different from the present-day folds in the Central Zagros. This early stage of intraplate reactivation of the NW-SE and N-S trending basement faults likely marks the onset of collisional deformation and stress build-up in the Zagros basin. This reactivation led to facies variations and development of different sub-basins in the Central Zagros during the sedimentation of the Oligocene- Miocene Asmari Formation. The evaporitic series of the Kalhur Member within the Asmari Formation resulted from the development during Aquitanian times of a long and narrow restricted lagoon environment, between two main basement faults (i.e., DEF and MFF), and provide one of the main key constraints on the beginning of deformation in the region. Finally, based on observed fracture populations and proposed geodynamic evolution in the Central Zagros basin, it is suggested that partitioning of N-S Arabia-Eurasia convergence into a belt-perpendicular NE-SW shortening and a beltparallel right-lateral strike-slip motion (as currently along the Main Recent Fault) in the Central Zagros may have started as early as Oligocene (?)-Lower Miocene times.


Zagros Asmari tectonics fold fracture basement 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdollahie, F. I., A. Braathen, M. Mokhtari and S. A. Alavi (2006), Interaction of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and the Arabian-type, deep-seated folds in the Abadan Plain and the 4 Dezful Embayment, SW Iran, Petroleum Geoscience, 12(4), 347–362.Google Scholar
  2. Agard, P., Omrani, J., Jolivet, L., and Mouthereau F., 2005, Convergence history across Zagros (Iran): constraints from collisional and earlier deformation, Int. J. Earth Sc., 94, 401–419, doi 10.1007/S00531-005-0481-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmadhadi, F., Daniel, J.M., Lacombe, O. and Mouthereau F., 2005, Fracture development within Asmari carbonates in the Central Zagros fold belt, SW Iran: An insight into the role of basement faults on Lower Tertiary facies changes and possible forced-folding. Vein Earth Science Meeting SGFSGE, Thrust belts and foreland basins, O. Lacombe, J. Lavé and F. Roure convenors, Rueil-Malmaison, Décembre 2005, Abstract volume, p 17–21Google Scholar
  4. Ahmadhadi F., 2006, Fracture development in the Asmari Fm., SW Iran: typology, timing and relation to folding and Arabia-Eurasia collisional tectonics; Insights from field studies and mechanical models. Unpublished PhD thesis, Université P. et M. Curie, Paris, France, 300pGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmadhadi F., Daniel J. M. and Lacombe O., Evidence for prefolding joint development in the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation in the Central Zagros Fold Belt, Iran. SubmittedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alavi, M., 1980, Tectonostratigraphical evolution of the Zagrosides of Iran, Geology, vol.8, p.144–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alavi, M., 1994, Tectonics of the Zagros Orogenic belt of Iran: new data and interpretations. Tectonophysics, 229, 211–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alavi, M., 2004, Regional stratigraphy of the Zagros fold-thrust belt of Iran and its proforeland evolution, American Journal of Science, vol.304, p.1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen, M., Jackson, J., and Walker, R., 2004, Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabian-Eurasian collision and comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates, Tectonics, vol. 23, TC2008, doi:10.1029/2003TC001530Google Scholar
  10. Ameen, M. S., 1988, Folding of layered cover due to dip-slip basement faulting, Ph.D. thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  11. Ameen, M. S., 1990, Macrofaulting in the Purbeck-Isle of Wight monocline, proceeding of the geologists’ Association, 101, 31–46.Google Scholar
  12. Baker C., Jackson, J., and Priestley, K., 1993, Earthquakes on the Kazerun line in the Zagros Mountains of Iran: strikeslip faulting within a fold-thrust belt, Geophys. J. Int., vol.115, p.41–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berberian, M., and Tchalenko, J., 1976a, Earthquakes of the southern Zagros (Iran): Bushehr region, Geol. Surv. Iran, vol.39, p.343–370.Google Scholar
  14. Berberian, M., 1981, Active faulting and tectonics of Iran, In: H. K. Gupta and F. M. Delaney (Editors), Zagros-Hindu Kush-Himalaya Geodynamic evolution, Am. Geophys. Union, Geodyn. Ser., vol.3, p.33–69.Google Scholar
  15. Berberian, M., 1995, Master blind thrust faults hidden under the Zagros folds: active basement tectonics and surface morphotectonics, Tectonophysics, vol. 241, p.193–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berberian, M. and King, G.C.P., 1981, Paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran, Canadian Journal of Earth Science, vol. 18, 210–265.Google Scholar
  17. Berberian, F., Muir, I. D., Pankhurst, R. J. and Berberian, M., 1982, Late Cretaceous and early Miocene Andean-type plutonic activity in northern Makran and Central Iran, J. Geol. Soc. London, 139(5): 605–614.Google Scholar
  18. Beydoun, Z. R., 1991, Arabian plate hydrocarbon, Geology and Potential-A Plate tectonic approach, AAPG, Studies in Geology 33, 77 p.Google Scholar
  19. Blanc, E. J. P., M. B. Allen, S. Inger, and H. Hassani, 2003, Structural styles in the Zagros simple folded zone, Iran. J. Geol Soc. London, 160, 401–412.Google Scholar
  20. Brown D., Alvarez-Marron J., Perez-Estaun A. Puchkov V. and Ayala C., 1999, Basement influence on foreland thrust and fold belt development: an example from the southern Urals, Tectonophysics, 308, 459–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Butler R.W.H., Holdsworth R.E. and Lloyd G.E., 1997, The role of basement reactivation in continental deformation. J. Geol. Soc. London, 154, 69–72Google Scholar
  22. Colman-Sadd, S. P., 1978, Fold Development in Zagros Simply Folded Belt, Southwest Iran, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, V. 62, No.6, pp. 984–1003.Google Scholar
  23. Cooper, M., 1992, The analysis of fracture systems in subsurface thrust structures from the foothills of the Canadian Rockies, in McClay, K. R., ed., Thrust tectonics, London, Chapman and Hall, p.391–405.Google Scholar
  24. Cooper M.A. and Williams G.D., 1989, Inversion tectonics, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 44, 375ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Cosgrove, J. W., and Ameen, M. S. (eds.), 2000, Forced Folds and Fractures. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 169,. The Geological Society of London.Google Scholar
  26. Cristallini E.O. and Ramos V.A., 2000, Thick-skinned and thinskinned thrusting in the La Ramada fold and thrust belt: crustal evolution of the High Andes of San Juan, Argentina (32°SL), Tectonophysics, 317, 205–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dechesne R.G. and Mountjoy E.W., 1992, Multiple thrust detachment at deep levels of the southern Canadian Rocky Mountain Main Range, Alberta and British Columbia, in Mitra S. and Fisher G.W. eds; Structural Geology of Fold and Thrust belts, John Hopkins University Press, 225–238Google Scholar
  28. De Sitter, L. U., 1956: Structural geology, New York, McGraw-Hill, 552p.Google Scholar
  29. Dewey J.F., Hempton M.R., Kidd W.S.F., Saroglu F. and Sengor A.M.C., 1986, Shortening of continental lithosphere: the neotectonics of eastern Anatolia-a young collision zone. In Coward M.P. and Ries A.C. eds, Collision Tectonics, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 19, 3–36Google Scholar
  30. Etheridge M.A., 1986, On the reactivation of extensional fault systems. Royal Soc. of London Philosophical Transactions, ser.A., 317, 179–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Edgell, H. S., 1992, Basement tectonic of Saudi Arabia as related to oil field structures, In: Rickard et al. (eds.), Basement tectonic 9, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p. 169–193.Google Scholar
  32. Falcon, N.L., 1961, Major earth-flexing in the Zagros Mountains of southwest Iran., J. Geol. Soc. London, 117(4): 468: 367–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Falcon, N., 1967, The geology of the north-east margin of the Arabian basement shield, Adv. Sci., v.24, p.31–42.Google Scholar
  34. Falcon, N.L., 1969, Problems of relationship between surface structures and deep displacements illustrated by the Zagros range, In: Time and place in orogeny: Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ. vol.3, p.9–22.Google Scholar
  35. Falcon, N. L., 1974, Southern Iran: Zagros mountains, In: A. M. Spencer (Editor), Mesozoic-Cenozoic Organic belts, data for orogenic studies, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Pub., 4, 199–211.Google Scholar
  36. Gholipour, A. M., 1998, Patterns and Structural Positions of Productive Fractures in the Asmari Reservoirs, Southwest Iran, The Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, vol. 37, no. 1, 44–50.Google Scholar
  37. Glen R.A., 1985, Basement control on the deformation of cover basins: an example from the Cobar district in the Lachlan fold belt, Australia, Journal of Structural Geology, 7, 301–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hancock, P. L., 1985, Brittle microtectonics: principles and practice, Journal of Structural Geology, 7, 437–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harris, J. F., Taylor, G. L., and Walper, J.L., 1960, Relation of deformational fractures in sedimentary rocks to regional and local structures, American Association of Petroleum Geologist Bulletin, v.44, p.1853–1873.Google Scholar
  40. Haynes, S. J., and McQuillan, H., 1974, Evolution of the Zagros suture zone, southern Iran, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.85, p.739–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hempton, M. R., 1987, Constraints on Arabian plate motion and extensional history of the Red Sea, Tectonics, 6, 687–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hessami, K., Koyi, H.A., Talbot, C.J., Tabasi, H., and Shabanian, E., 2001, Progressive unconformities within an evolving foreland fold-thrust belt, Zagros Mountains: J. the Geol. Soc. London, v. 158, p. 969–981.Google Scholar
  43. Homke, S., J. Verges, M. Garces, H. Emami and R. Karpuz, 2004, Magnetostratigraphy of Miocene-Pliocene Zagros foreland deposits in the front of the Push-e Kush Arc (Lurestan Province, Iran), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 225(3–4), p. 397–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hooper, R. J., Baron, I. R., Agah, S., Hatcher, R. D., Jr., 1994, The Cenomanian to recent development of the Southern Tethyan Margin in Iran, in: M.I. Al-Husseini (Ed.), Middle East Petroleum Geosciences GEO, vol. II, pp. 505–516.Google Scholar
  45. Huber, H., 1977, Geological map of Iran with explanatory note, Natl. Iran. Oil Co. Explor. Prod. Affairs, Tehran.Google Scholar
  46. Jackson, J. A., 1980, Reactivation of basement faults and crustal shortening in orogenic belts, Nature, vol.283, p.343–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jackson, J. A. and McKenzie, D., 1984, Active tectonics of the Alpine-Himalayan Belt between western Turkey and Pakistan, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., vol.77, p.185–264.Google Scholar
  48. Jackson, J. A., Fitch, Ti., and McKenzie, D. P., 1981, Active thrusting and evolution of the Zagros fold belt. In: K. Mc-Clay and N. Price Editors, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 9: 371–379.Google Scholar
  49. James, G. S., and Wynd, J. G., 1965, Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium Agreement area, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 49(12), 2182–2245.Google Scholar
  50. Lacombe O. and Mouthereau F., 1999. Qu’est-ce que le front des orogènes ? l’exemple de l’orogène pyrénéen. C. R. Acad. Sc., t. 329,II, 12, 889–896Google Scholar
  51. Lacombe O., Mouthereau F., Angelier J., Chu H.T. and Lee J.C., 2003, Frontal belt curvature and oblique ramp development at an obliquely collided irregular margin: geometry and kinematics of the NW Taiwan fold-thrust belt. Tectonics, 22,3, 1025,10.1029/2002TC001436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lacombe O. and Mouthereau F., 2002. Basement-involved shortening and deep detachment tectonics in forelands of orogens: insights from recent collision belts (Taiwan, western Alps, Pyrenees). Tectonics, 21,4, 10.1029/2001TC901018Google Scholar
  53. Lacombe O., Mouthereau F., Kargar S. and Meyer B., 2006, Late Cenozoic and modern stress fields in the western Fars (Iran):implications for the tectonic and kinematic evolution of Central Zagros. Tectonics, 25, TC1003, doi:10.1029/ 2005TC001831Google Scholar
  54. Lees, G.M., 1950, Some structural and stratigraphical aspects of the oil fields of the Middle East: 18th Int. Geol. Cong., Great Britain, Proc., pt. 6, p. 26–33.Google Scholar
  55. Letouzey J., 1990. Fault reactivation, inversion and fold-thrust belt. In Petroleum and Tectonics in Mobile belts, J. Letouzey ed., Technip, Paris, 101–128Google Scholar
  56. Letouzey J. and Sherkati S., 2004, Salt movement, tectonic events, and structural style in the Central Zagros Dold and Thrust Belt (Iran), In “Salt sediments interactions and hydrocarbon prospectivity”, 24th ann. GCSSEP Foundation, Bob F. Perkins research Conf.Google Scholar
  57. McQuarrie, N., 2004, Crustal scale geometry of the Zagros fold-thrust belt, Iran: Journal of Structural Geology, p.519–535.Google Scholar
  58. Mann, C. D., and Vita-Finzi, C., 1988, Holocene serial folding in the Zagros, in: M. Audley-Charles, A. Hallam (Eds.), Gondwana and Tethys, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., vol. 37, pp. 51–59.Google Scholar
  59. Marshak S., Karlstrom K. and Timmons J.M., 2000, Inversion of Proterozoic extensional faults: an explanation for the pattern of Laramide and Ancestral Rockies intracratonic deformation, United States, Geology, 28,8, 735–738Google Scholar
  60. Mitra S. and Mount V.S., 1998, Foreland basement-involved structures. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 82, 70–109Google Scholar
  61. McQuarrie, N., Stock J.M., Verdel C. and Wernicke B.P., 2003, Cenozoic evolution of Neotethys and implications for the causes of plate motions; Geophys. Res. Letters, 30,20, 2036, doi:10.1029/2003GL017992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McQuarrie, N., 2004, Crustal scale geometry of the Zagros fold-thrust belt, Iran, Journal of Structural Geology, 26, 519–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McQuillan, H., 1973, Small-Scale Fracture Density in Asmari Formation of Southwest Iran and its Relation to Bed Thickness and Structural Setting, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 57, no. 12, 2367–2385.Google Scholar
  64. McQuillan, H., 1974, Fracture Patterns on Kuh-e Asmari Anticline, Southwest Iran, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 58, no. 2, 236–246.Google Scholar
  65. McQuillan, H., 1985, Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs, (Roehl & Choquette), Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc.Google Scholar
  66. Morris P., 1977, Basement structure as suggested by aeromagnetic surveys in southwest ran, paper presented at Second Geological Symposium of Iran, Iranian Pet. Inst., Oil Serv. Co. Iran, TehranGoogle Scholar
  67. Motiei, H., 1993, Stratigraphy of the Zagros, Geological Society of Iran Publications (in Persian).Google Scholar
  68. Mouthereau F., Deffontaines B., Lacombe O. and Angelier J., 2002. Variations along the strike of the Taiwan thrust belt: Basement control on structural style, wedge geometry and kinematics. In Byrne T.B., and Liu C.-S., eds, Geology and Geophysics of an Arc-Continent Collision, Taiwan, Republic of China, Boulder, Colorado, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 358, chapter 3, 35–58Google Scholar
  69. Mouthereau F., Lacombe O. and Meyer B., 2006, The Zagros fold belt (Fars, Iran): constraints from topography and critical wedge modelling, Geophys. J. Int., 165(1), 336–356, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.02855.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mouthereau F., Lacombe O., Tensi J., Bellahsen N., Kargar S., Amrouch K., Mechanical constraints on the development of the Zagros fold belt (Fars), this issue.Google Scholar
  71. Narr W. and Suppe J., 1994, Kinematics of basement-involved compressive structures, American Journal of Science, 294, 802–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nelson, R.A., 2001, Geological analysis of naturally fractured Reservoirs, Second Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing.Google Scholar
  73. Ni, J., and M. Barazangi, 1986, Seismotectonics of the Zagros continental collision zone and a comparison with the Himalayas, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 91, part B8, 8205–8218.Google Scholar
  74. Nowroozi, A., 1972, Focal mechanism of earthquakes in Iran, Turkey, West Pakistan and Afghanistan and plate tectonics of the Middle East, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., vol.62, no.3, p.823–850.Google Scholar
  75. Oveisi B., Lavé J. and Van der Beek P., Active folding and deformation rate at the central Zagros front (Iran), this issueGoogle Scholar
  76. Price, N. J., 1966, Fault and joint development in brittle and semi-brittle rock, New York, Pergamon Press, 176p.Google Scholar
  77. Price, N. J., and J. W. Cosgrove, 1990, Analysis of geological fractures, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  78. Price, R. A., 1967, The tectonic significance of mesoscopic subfabrics in the Southern Rocky Mountains of Alberta and British Columbia, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.4, p.39–70.Google Scholar
  79. Ricou, L. E., 1970, Comments on radiolarites and ophiolite nappes in the Iranian Zagros mountains, Geological Magazine, v.107, p.479–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Robertson, A. H. F., 2000, Mesozoic-Tertiary tectonicsedimentary evolution of a south Tethyan oceanic basin and its margins in southern Turkey, in Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding Area, edited by E. Bozkurt, J. A. Winchester, and J. D. A. Piper, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 173, 97–138.Google Scholar
  81. Roure F., Howell D.G., Guellec S. and Casero P., 1990. Shallow structures induced by deep-seated thrusting. Petroleum and Tectonics in Mobile belts, J. Letouzey ed., Technip, Paris, 15–30Google Scholar
  82. Sattarzadeh, Y., J. W. Cosgrove, and C. Vita-Finzi, 2000, The interplay of faulting and folding during the evolution of the Zagros deformation belt, In: Cosgrove, J. W., & Ameen, M. S., (eds.), Forced folds and fractures, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 169, 187–196.Google Scholar
  83. Sherkati, S., and Letouzey, J., 2004, Variation of structural style and basin evolution in the central Zagros (Izeh zone and Dezful Embayment), Iran: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 21, p. 535–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sherkati, S., Letouzey, J., and Frizon de Lamotte, D., 2006, The central Zagros fold-thrust belt (Iran): New insights from seismic data, field observation and sandbox modelling, Tectonics, 25, TC4007, doi:10.1029/2004TC001766Google Scholar
  85. Sibson R.H., 1993, Load-strengthening vs load-weakening faults, Journal of Structural Geology, 15, 123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stearns, D. W., 1968, Certain aspects of fracture in naturally deformed rocks, in Riecker, R. E., ed., NSF advanced science seminar in rock mechanics, Bedford, Massachusetts, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, p.97–116.Google Scholar
  87. Stearns, D. W., 1978, Faulting and forced folding in the rocky mountains foreland, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 151, 1–37.Google Scholar
  88. Stearns, D. W., and M. Friedman, 1972, Reservoirs in fractured rock, AAPG Memoir 16, 82–100.Google Scholar
  89. Stewarts, S. A., and Wynn, T. J., 2000, Mapping spatial variation in rock properties in relationship to scale-dependent structure using spectral curvature, Geology, v.28, p.691–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stöklin, J., 1968, Structural history and tectonics of Iran; a review, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol.59, no.7, p.869–872.Google Scholar
  91. Stoneley, R., 1981, The geology of the Kuh-e Dalneshin area of southern Iran, and its bearing on the evolution of southern Tethys, J. Geol. Soc. London, vol.138, p.509–526.Google Scholar
  92. Talebian, T., and J. Jackson, 2002, Offset on the Main Recent Fault of NW Iran and implications for the late Cenozoic tectonics of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, Geophys. J. Int. v. 150, p. 422–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Talebian, M., and Jackson, J. A., 2004, A reappraisal of earthquake focal mechanism and active shortening in the Zagros mountains of Iran, Geophys. J. Int., vol.156, p.506–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tapponnier P., Peltzer G. and Armijo R., 1986. On the mechanics of the collision between India and Asia. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. London, 19, 115–157Google Scholar
  95. Tatar, M., Hatzfeld, D., and Ghafory-Ashtiany, M., 2004, Tectonics of the Central Zagros (Iran) deduced from microearthquake seimicity, Geophy. J. Int., vol.156, p.255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tatar, M., Hatzfeld, D., Martinod, J., Walpersdorf, A., Ghafori-Ashtiany, M. and Chéry, J., 2002, The present day deformation of the Central Zagros (Iran), Geophys. Res. Lett., vol.29, 33-1 to 33-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vernant, P., F. Nilforoushan, D. Hatzfeld, M. R. Abbassi, C. Vigny, F. Masson, H. Nankali, J. Martinod, A. Ashtiani, R. Bayer, F. Tavakoli, and J. Chéry, 2004, Present day crustal deformation and plate kinematics in the Middle East constrained by GPS measurements in Iran and northern Oman, Geophys. J. Int., v. 157, p. 381–398.Google Scholar
  98. Vita-Finzi, C., 2001, Neotectonics at the Arabian plate margins, Journal of Structural Geology 23, 521–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wells, A. J., 1969, The crush zone of the Iranian Zagros mountains, and its implications, Geological magazine, v.106, p.358–394.Google Scholar
  100. Wennberg, O.P., Svånå, T., Azizzadeh, M., Aqrawi, A. M. M., Brockbank, P., Lyslo, K. B. and Ogilvie, S., 2006, Fracture intensity vs. mechanical stratigraphy in platform topcarbonates: the Aquitanian of the Asmari Formation, Khaviz Anticline, Zagros, SW Iran, Petroleum Geoscience, 12, p. 235–245Google Scholar
  101. Wiltschko. D and Eastman D., 1983, Role of basement warps and faults in localizing thrust fault ramps, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 158, 177–190Google Scholar
  102. Winslow, M.A., 1981, Mechanisms for basement shortening in the Andean foreland fold belt of southern South America, Thrust and Nappe Tectonics, J. Geol. Soc. London, 513–528Google Scholar
  103. Yilmaz, Y., 1993, New evidence and model on the evolution of the southeast Anatolian orogen, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 105, 251–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ziegler P.A., 1987 Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic intraplate compressional deformations in the Alpine foreland-a geodynamic model, Tectonophysics, 137, 389–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ziegler P.A., Cloetingh S. and van Wees J.D., 1995, Dynamics of intraplate compressional deformation: the Alpine foreland and other examples. Tectonophysics, 252, 7–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ziegler P.A., Van Wees J.D. and Cloetingh S., 1998, Mechanical controls on collision-related compressional intraplate deformation, Tectonophysics, 300, 103–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faram Ahmadhadi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Olivier Lacombe
    • 3
  • Jean-Marc Daniel
    • 2
  1. 1.Geology and Petrophysics DepartmentIranian Off shore Oil CompanyTehranIran
  2. 2.Direction Géologie-Géochimie-GéophysiqueInstitut Français du PétroleRueil-Malmaison CedexFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Tectonique, CNRS UMR 7072Université Pierre-et-Marie CurieParis Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations