Hecht  was the first who studied the role of heredity in acne. Neonatal, nodulocystic, and conglobate acne have proven genetic influences . Postadolescent acne is related with a first-degree relative with the condition in 50 % of the cases. Chromosomal abnormalities, HLA phenotypes, and polymorphisms of various genes have been associated with acne. Data from family studies confirmed familial clustering [3–5]. High heritability estimates for acne in twins were reported [6, 7]. Higher correlations of sebum excretion and the proportion of branched fatty acids in the fraction of sebaceous wax esters were found in monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins [8, 9]. A large twin study demonstrated that 81 % of the variance of the disease was attributed to additive genetic effects, whereas the remaining 19 % was attributed to unique, unshared environmental factors . Apolipoprotein A1 serum levels were significantly lower in acne twins . A family history of acne is associated with earlier occurrence of the disease, increased number of retentional lesions, and therapeutic difficulties, especially a higher risk for a relapse after oral isotretinoin treatment . Another twin study revealed that heritability of acne on the back was very high . Remarkably, at age 14 years, facial acne in girls was less influenced by genetic factors than in boys and was significantly influenced by common environmental factors .
- Androgen Receptor
- Sebaceous Gland
- Dermal Papilla Cell
- Androgenetic Alopecia
- Acne Patient
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Fibroblast growth factor
Fibroblast growth factor receptor
Forkhead box class O transcription factor
Growth hormone receptor
Insulin-like growth factor-1
Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor
Liver X receptor
Mitogen-activated protein kinase
Melanocortin 1 receptor
Melanocortin 5 receptor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
Retinoic acid receptor
Retinoid X receptor
Single nucleotide polymorphism
Sterol regulatory element binding protein
5 Alpha reductase type 1
Tumor necrosis factor
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Melnik, B.C. (2014). Acne and Genetics. In: Zouboulis, C., Katsambas, A., Kligman, A. (eds) Pathogenesis and Treatment of Acne and Rosacea. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69375-8_14
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