Advertisement

Generating Asymmetry: With and Without Self-Renewal

  • Ivana Gaziova
  • Krishna Moorthi Bhat
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology book series (PMSB, volume 45)

Keywords

Ventral Nerve Cord Asymmetric Division Asymmetric Cell Division Spindle Orientation Larval Brain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akiyama-Oda Y, Hosoya T, Hotta Y (1999) Asymmetric cell division of thoracic neuroblast 6–4 to bifurcate glial and neuronal lineage in Drosophila. Development 126:1967–1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiyama-Oda Y, Hotta Y, Tsukita S, Oda H (2000) Mechanism of glia-neuron cell-fate switch in the Drosophila thoracic neuroblast 6–4 lineage. Development 127:3513–3522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Albertson R, Doe CQ (2003) Dlg, Scrib and Lgl regulate neuroblast cell size and mitotic spindle asymmetry. Nat Cell Biol 5:166–1670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arama E, Dickman D, Kimchie Z, Shearn A, Lev Z (2000) Mutations in the beta-propeller domain of the Drosophila brain tumor (brat) protein induce neoplasm in the larval brain. Oncogene 19:3706–3716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barros CS, Phelps CB, Brand AH (2003) Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II promotes the asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants by cortical exclusion rather than active transport. Dev Cell 5:829–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bate CM (1976) Embryogenesis of an insect nervous system. I. A map of the thoracic and abdominal neuroblasts in Locusta migratoria. J Embryol Exp Morphol 35:107–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bello B, Reichert H, Hirth F (2006) The brain tumor gene negatively regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation in the larval central brain of Drosophila. Development 133:2639–2648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berdnik D, Torok T, Gonzalez-Gaitan M, Knoblich JA (2002) The endocytic protein alpha-Adaptin is required for numb-mediated asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Dev Cell 3:221–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berger C, Pallavi SK, Prasad M, Shashidhara LS, Technau GM (2005) A critical role for cyclin E in cell fate determination in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Cell Biol 7:56–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich JA (2003) The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature 422:326–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Betschinger J, Eisenhaber F, Knoblich JA (2005) Phosphorylation-induced autoinhibition regulates the cytoskeletal protein Lethal (2) giant larvae. Curr Biol 15:276–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich JA (2006) Asymmetric segregation of the tumor suppressor brat regulates self-renewal in Drosophila neural stem cells. Cell 124:1241–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhalerao S, Berdnik D, Torok T, Knoblich JA (2005) Localization-dependent and -independent roles of numb contribute to cell-fate specification in Drosophila. Curr Biol 15:1583–1590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhat KM (1999) Segment polarity genes in neuroblast formation and identity specification during Drosophila neurogenesis. Bioessays 21:472–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhat KM, Apsel N (2004) A mechanism for the self-renewing asymmetric division of neural precursor cells in the Drosophila CNS. Development 131:1123–1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhat KM, Schedl P (1994) The Drosophila miti-mere gene, a member of the POU family, is required for the specification of the RP2/sibling lineage during neurogenesis. Development 120:1483–1501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhat KM, Poole SJ, Schedl P (1995) The miti-mere and pdm1 genes collaborate during specification of the RP2/sib lineage in Drosophila neurogenesis. Mol Cell Biol 15:4052–4063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhat KM, McBurney W, Hamada H (1988) Functional cloning of mouse chromosomal loci specifically active in embryonal carcinoma stem cells. Mol Cell Biol 8:3251–3259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bilder D (2004) Epithelial polarity and proliferation control: links from the Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressors. Genes Dev 18:1909–1925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bossing T, Udolph G, Doe CQ, Technau GM (1996) The embryonic central nervous system lineages of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Neuroblast lineages derived from the ventral half of the neuroectoderm. Dev Biol 179:41–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brand AH, Perrimon N (1993) Targeted gene expression as a means of altering cell fates and generating dominant phenotypes. Development 118:401–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Broadus J, Doe CQ (1997) Extrinsic cues, intrinsic cues and microfilaments regulate asymmetric protein localization in Drosophila neuroblasts. Curr Biol 7:827–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Broadus J, Fuerstenberg S, Doe CQ (1998) Staufen-dependent localization of prospero mRNA contributes to neuroblast daughter-cell fate. Nature 391:792–795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brunner D, Oellers N, Szabad J, Biggs WH III, Zipursky SL, Hafen E (1994) A gain-of-function mutation in Drosophila MAP kinase activates multiple receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Cell 76:875–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Buescher M, Yeo SL, Udolph G, Zavortink M, Yang X, Tear G, Chia W (1998) Binary sibling neuronal cell fate decisions in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system are nonstochastic and require inscuteable- mediated asymmetry of ganglion mother cells. Genes Dev 12:1858–1870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cai Y, Yu F, Lin S, Chia W, Yang X (2003) Apical complex genes control mitotic spindle geometry and relative size of daughter cells in Drosophila neuroblast and pI asymmetric divisions. Cell 112:51–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Campbell KH, McWhir J, Ritchie WA, Wilmut I (1996) Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line. Nature 380:64–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Campos-Ortega JA, Jan YN (1991) Genetic and molecular bases of neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Annu Rev Neurosci 14:399–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Caussinus E, Gonzalez C (2005) Induction of tumor growth by altered stem-cell asymmetric division in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet 37:1125–1129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ceron J, Gonzalez C, Tejedor FJ (2001) Patterns of cell division and expression of asymmetric cell fate determinants in postembryonic neuroblast lineages of Drosophila. Dev Biol 230:125–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chambers I, Colby D, Robertson M, Nichols J, Lee S, Tweedie S, Smith A (2003) Functional expression cloning of Nanog, a pluripotency sustaining factor in embryonic stem cells. Cell 113:643–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Collarini EJ, Kuhn R, Marshall CJ, Monuki ES, Lemke G, Richardson WD (1992) Down-regulation of the POU transcription factor SCIP is an early event in oligodendrocyte differentiation in vivo. Development 116:193–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cowan CA, Atienza J, Melton DA, Eggan K (2005) Nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells after fusion with human embryonic stem cells. Science 309:1369–1373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Datta S (1995) Control of proliferation activation in quiescent neuroblasts of the Drosophila central nervous system. Development 121:1173–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Davis RL, Weintraub H, Lassar AB (1987) Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts to myoblasts. Cell 51:987–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dittrich R, Bossing T, Gould AP, Technau GM, Urban J (1997) The differentiation of the serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord depends on the combined function of zinc finger proteins Eagle and Huckebein. Development 124:2515–2525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Doe CQ (1992) Molecular markers for identified neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the Drosophila central nervous system. Development 116:855–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Doe CQ, Chu-LaGraff Q, Wright DM, Scott MP (1991) The prospero gene specifies cell fates in the Drosophila central nervous system. Cell 65:451–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dujon B, Alexandraki D, Andre B, Ansorge W, Baladron V, Ballesta JP, Banrevi A, Bolle PA, Bolotin-Fukuhara M, Bossier P et al. (1994) Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome XI. Nature 369:371–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dumstrei K, Wang F, Nassif C, Hartenstein V (2003) Early development of the Drosophila brain: V. Pattern of postembryonic neuronal lineages expressing DE-cadherin. J Comp Neurol 455:451–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Freeman MR, Doe CQ (2001) Asymmetric Prospero localization is required to generate mixed neuronal/glial lineages in the Drosophila CNS. Development 128:4103–4112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fujita SC, Zipursky SL, Benzer S, Ferrus A, Shotwell SL (1982) Monoclonal antibodies against the Drosophila nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci 79:7929–7933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fuse N, Hisata K, Katzen AL, Matsuzaki F (2003) Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate daughter cell size asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblast divisions. Curr Biol 13:947–954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gateff E, Schneiderman HA (1967) Developmental studies of a new mutant of Drosophila melanogaster: Lethal malignant brain tumor (l(2) gl4). Am Zool 7:760.Google Scholar
  45. Gateff E, Loffler T, Wismar J (1993) A temperature-sensitive brain tumor suppressor mutation of Drosophila melanogaster: developmental studies and molecular localization of the gene. Mech Dev 41:15–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Golan-Mashiach M, Dazard JE, Gerecht-Nir S, Amariglio N, Fisher T, Jacob-Hirsch J, Bielorai B, Osenberg S, Barad O, Getz G, Toren A, Rechavi G, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Domany E, Givol D (2004) Design principle of gene expression used by human stem cells: implication for pluripotency. FASEB J 19:147–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Granderath S, Stollewerk A, Greig S, Goodman CS, O'Kane CJ, Klambt C (1999) loco encodes an RGS protein required for Drosophila glial differentiation. Development 126:1781–1791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Guo M, Jan LY, Jan YN (1996) Control of daughter cell fates during asymmetric division: interaction of Numb and Notch. Neuron 17:27–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hall PA, Watt FM (1989) Stem cells: the generation and maintenance of cellular diversity. Development 106:619–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hartenstein V, Campos-Ortega JA (1984) Early neurogenesis in wildtype Drosophila melanogaster. Wilhelm Roux's Arch Dev Biol 193:308–325.Google Scholar
  51. Higashijima S, Shishido E, Matsuzaki M, Saigo K (1996) eagle, a member of the steroid receptor gene superfamily, is expressed in a subset of neuroblasts and regulates the fate of their putative progeny in the Drosophila CNS. Development 122:527–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hochedlinger K, Jaenisch R (2006) Nuclear reprogramming and pluripotency. Nature 441:1061–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Ikeshima-Kataoka H, Skeath JB, Nabeshima Y, Doe CQ, Matsuzaki F (1997) Miranda directs Prospero to a daughter cell during Drosophila asymmetric divisions. Nature 390:625–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Ito K, Hotta Y (1992) Proliferation pattern of postembryonic neuroblasts in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol 149:134–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Izumi Y, Ohta N, Itoh-Furuya A, Fuse N, Matsuzaki F (2004) Differential functions of G protein and Baz-aPKC signaling pathways in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric division. J Cell Biol 164:729–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Knoblich JA, Jan LY, Jan YN (1995) Asymmetric segregation of Numb and Prospero during cell division. Nature 377:624–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Knoblich JA, Jan LY, Jan YN (1999) Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. Curr Biol 9:155–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kraut R, Chia W, Jan LY, Jan YN, Knoblich JA (1996) Role of inscuteable in orienting asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila. Nature 383:50–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kuchinke U, Grawe F, Knust E (1998) Control of spindle orientation in Drosophila by the Par-3-related PDZ-domain protein Bazooka. Curr Biol 8:1357–1365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lai Z, Fortini ME, Rubin GM (1991) The embryonic expression pattern of zfh1 and zfh2, two Drosophila genes encoding novel zinc-finger homeodomain proteins. Mech Dev 34:123–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lear BC, Skeath JB, Patel NH (1999) Neural cell fate in rca1 and cycA mutants: the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in asymmetric division in the Drosophila central nervous system. Mech Dev 88:207–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lee CY, Robinson KJ, Doe CQ (2006a) Lgl, Pins and aPKC regulate neuroblast self-renewal versus differentiation. Nature 439:594–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lee CY, Wilkinson BD, Siegrist SE, Wharton RP, Doe CQ (2006b) Brat is a Miranda cargo protein that promotes neuronal differentiation and inhibits neuroblast self-renewal. Dev Cell 10:441–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lewis EB (1978) A gene complex controlling segmentation in Drosophila. Nature 276:565–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Li L, Vaessin H (2000) Pan-neural Prospero terminates cell proliferation during Drosophila neurogenesis. Genes Dev 14:147–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Li P, Yang X, Wasser M, Cai Y, Chia W (1997) Inscuteable and Staufen mediate asymmetric localization and segregation of prospero RNA during Drosophila neuroblast cell divisions. Cell 90:437–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Littlefield JW, Felix JS (1982) Rescue of terminally differentiating teratocarcinoma cells by fusion to undifferentiated parental cells. Somatic Cell Genet 8:743–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Loh YH, Wu Q, Chew JL, Vega VB, Zhang W, Chen X, Bourque G, George J, Leong B, Liu J, Wong KY, Sung KW, Lee CW, Zhao XD, Chiu KP, Lipovich L, Kuznetsov VA, Robson P, Stanton LW, Wei CL, Ruan Y, Lim B, Ng HH (2006) The Oct4 and Nanog transcription network regulates pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells. Nat Genet 38:431–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lu B, Rothenberg M, Jan LY, Jan YN (1998) Partner of Numb colocalizes with Numb during mitosis and directs Numb asymmetric localization in Drosophila neural and muscle progenitors. Cell 95:225–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lu B, Ackerman L, Jan LY, Jan YN (1999) Modes of protein movement that lead to the asymmetric localization of partner of Numb during Drosophila neuroblast division. Mol Cell 4:883–891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lundell MJ, Hirsh J (1998) eagle is required for the specification of serotonin neurons and other neuroblast 7–3 progeny in the Drosophila CNS. Development 125:463–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Manning L, Doe CQ (1999) Prospero distinguishes sibling cell fate without asymmetric localization in the Drosophila adult external sense organ lineage. Development 126:2063–2071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Matsuzaki F, Ohshiro T, Ikeshima-Kataoka H, Izumi H (1998) miranda localizes staufen and prospero asymmetrically in mitotic neuroblasts and epithelial cells in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Development 125:4089–4098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Mehta B, Bhat KM (2001) Slit signaling promotes the terminal asymmetric division of neural precursor cells in the Drosophila CNS. Development 128:3161–3168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mitsui K, Tokuzawa Y, Itoh H, Segawa K, Murakami M, Takahashi K, Maruyama M, Maeda M, Yamanaka S (2003) The homeoprotein Nanog is required for maintenance of pluripotency in mouse epiblast and ES cells. Cell 113:631–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. O'Connor-Giles KM, Skeath JB (2003) Numb inhibits membrane localization of Sanpodo, a four-pass transmembrane protein, to promote asymmetric divisions in Drosophila. Dev Cell 5:231–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ohshiro T, Yagami T, Zhang C, Matsuzaki F (2000) Role of cortical tumour-suppressor proteins in asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblast. Nature 408:593–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Park Y, Fujioka M, Jaynes JB, Datta S (1998) Drosophila homeobox gene eve enhances trol, an activator of neuroblast proliferation in the larval CNS. Dev Genet 23:247–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Parmentier ML, Woods D, Greig S, Phan PG, Radovic A, Bryant P, O'Kane CJ (2000) Rapsynoid/partner of inscuteable controls asymmetric division of larval neuroblasts in Drosophila. J Neurosci 20:RC84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Peng CY, Manning L, Albertson R, Doe CQ (2000) The tumour-suppressor genes lgl and dlg regulate basal protein targeting in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nature 408:596–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Petritsch C, Tavosanis G, Turck CW, Jan LY, Jan YN (2003) The Drosophila myosin VI Jaguar is required for basal protein targeting and correct spindle orientation in mitotic neuroblasts. Dev Cell 4:273–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Petronczki M, Knoblich JA (2001) DmPAR-6 directs epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol 3:43–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Prokop A, Technau GM (1991) The origin of postembryonic neuroblasts in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila melanogaster. Development 111:79–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rath P, Lin S, Udolph G, Cai Y, Yang X, Chia W (2002) Inscuteable-independent apicobasally oriented asymmetric divisions in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. EMBO 3:660–665.Google Scholar
  85. Rolls MM, Albertson R, Shih HP, Lee CY, Doe CQ (2003) Drosophila aPKC regulates cell polarity and cell proliferation in neuroblasts and epithelia. J Cell Biol 163:1089–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rorth P (1996) A modular misexpression screen in Drosophila detecting tissue-specific phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:12418–12422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rorth P, Szabo K, Bailey A, Laverty T, Rehm J, Rubin GM, Weigmann K, Milan M, Benes V, Ansorge W, Cohen SM (1998) Systematic gain-of-function genetics in Drosophila. Development 125:1049–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Rosner MH, Vigano MA, Ozato K, Timmons PM, Poirier F, Rigby PWJ, Staudt LM (1990) A POU-domain transcription factor in early stem cells and germ cells of mammalian embryo. Nature 345:686–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Schaefer M, Shevchenko A, Shevchenko A, Knoblich JA (2000) A protein complex containing Inscuteable and the Galpha-binding protein Pins orients asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila. Curr Biol 10:353–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Schaefer M, Petronczki M, Dorner D, Forte M, Knoblich JA (2001) Heterotrimeric G proteins direct two modes of asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila nervous system. Cell 107:183–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Schmidt H, Rickert C, Bossing T, Vef O, Urban J, Technau GM (1997) The embryonic central nervous system lineages of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Neuroblast lineages derived from the dorsal part of the neuroectoderm. Dev Biol 189:186–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Schober M, Schaefer M, Knoblich JA (1999) Bazooka recruits Inscuteable to orient asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nature 402:548–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Schuldt AJ, Brand AH (1999) Mastermind acts downstream of Notch to specify neuronal cell fates in the Drosophila central nervous system. Dev Biol 205:287–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Shen CP, Jan LY, Jan YN (1997) Miranda is required for the asymmetric localization of Prospero during mitosis in Drosophila. Cell 90:449–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Shen CP, Knoblich JA, Chan YM, Jiang MM, Jan LY, Jan YN (1998) Miranda as a multidomain adapter linking apically localized Inscuteable and basally localized Staufen and Prospero during asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Genes Dev 12:1837–1846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Siegrist SE, Doe CQ (2005) Microtubule-induced Pins/Galphai cortical polarity in Drosophila neuroblasts. Cell 123:1323–1335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Skeath JB, Doe CQ (1998) Sanpodo and Notch act in opposition to Numb to distinguish sibling neuron fates in the Drosophila CNS. Development 125:1857–1865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Slack C, Somers WG, Sousa-Nunes R, Chia W, Overton PM (2006) A mosaic genetic screen for novel mutations affecting Drosophila neuroblast divisions. BMC Genet 7:33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith WC, Harland RM (1992) Expression cloning of noggin, a new dorsalizing factor localized to the Spemann organizer in Xenopus embryos. Cell 70:829–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Spana EP, Doe CQ (1995) The prospero transcription factor is asymmetrically localized to the cell cortex during neuroblast mitosis in Drosophila. Development 121:3187–3195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Spana EP, Doe CQ (1996) Numb antagonizes Notch signaling to specify sibling neuron cell fates. Neuron 17:21–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Stewart M, Murphy C, Fristrom JW (1972) The recovery and preliminary characterization of X chromosome mutants affecting imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol 27:71–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Strand D, Unger S, Corvi R, Hartenstein K, Schenkel H, Kalme A, Merdes G, Neumann B, Krieg-Schneider F, Coy JF et al. (1995) A human homologue of the Drosophila tumour suppressor gene l(2) gl maps to 17p11.2–12 and codes for a cytoskeletal protein that associates with nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain. Oncogene 11:291–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sulston J, Du Z, Thomas K, Wilson R, Hillier L, Staden R, Halloran N, Green P, Thierry-Mieg J, Qiu L et al. (1992) The C. elegans genome sequencing project: a beginning. Nature 356:37–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Szutorisz H, Dillon N (2005) The epigenetic basis for embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Bioessays 27:1286–1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Tanaka TS, Kunath T, Kimber WL, Jaradat SA, Stagg C, Usuda M, Yokota T, Niwa H, Rossant J, Ko MS (2002) Gene expression profiling of embryo-derived stem cells reveals candidate genes associated with pluripotency and lineage specificity. Genome Res 12:1921–1928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tejedor F, Zhu XR, Kaltenbach E, Ackermann A, Baumann A, Canal I, Heisenberg M, Fischbach KF, Pongs O (1995) minibrain: a new protein kinase family involved in postembryonic neurogenesis in Drosophila. Neuron 14:287–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Thomas JB, Bastiani MJ, Bate M, Goodman CS (1984) From grasshopper to Drosophila: a common plan for neuronal development. Nature 310:203–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Truman JW, Bate M (1988) Spatial and temporal patterns of neurogenesis in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol 125:145–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Wai P, Truong B, Bhat KM (1999) Cell division genes promote asymmetric interaction between Numb and Notch in the Drosophila CNS. Development 126:2759–2770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wang H, Ng KH, Qian H, Siderovski DP, Chia W, Yu F (2005) Ric-8 controls Drosophila neural progenitor asymmetric division by regulating heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Cell Biol 7:1091–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. White K, Kankel DR (1978) Patterns of cell division and cell movement in the formation of the imaginal nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol 65:296–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Williams RL, Hilton DJ, Pease S, Willson TA, Stewart CL, Gearing DP, Wagner EF, Metcalf D, Nicola NA, Gough NM (1988) Myeloid leukaemia inhibitory factor maintains the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells. Nature 336:684–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wodarz A, Ramrath A, Kuchinke U, Knust E (1999) Bazooka provides an apical cue for Inscuteable localization in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nature 402:544–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Wodarz A, Ramrath A, Grimm A, Knust E (2000) Drosophila atypical protein kinase C associates with Bazooka and controls polarity of epithelia and neuroblasts. J Cell Biol 150:1361–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Woodhouse E, Hersperger E, Shearn A (1998) Growth, metastasis, and invasiveness of Drosophila tumors caused by mutations in specific tumor suppressor genes. Dev Genes Evol 207:542–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Yang X, Yeo S, Dick T, Chia W (1993) The role of a Drosophila POU homeo domain gene in the specification of neural precursor cell identity in the developing embryonic central nervous system. Genes Dev 7:504–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Yedvobnick B, Kumar A, Choudhury P, Opraseuth J, Mortimer N, Bhat KM (2004) The asymmetric division function of Mastermind is separable and distinct from its neurogenic function during Drosophila neurogenesis. Genetics 166:1281–1289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Yeo SL, Lloyd A, Kozak K, Dinh A, Dick T, Yang X, Sakonju S, Chia W (1995) On the functional overlap between two Drosophila POU homeo domain genes and the cell fate specification of a CNS neural precursor. Genes Dev 9:1223–1236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Ying Q-L, Nichols J, Chambers I, Smith A (2003) BMP Induction of Id proteins suppresses differentiation and sustains embryonic stem cell self-renewal in collaboration with STAT3. Cell 115:281–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Yu F, Morin X, Cai Y, Yang X, Chia W (2000) Analysis of partner of inscuteable, a novel player of Drosophila asymmetric divisions, reveals two distinct steps in inscuteable apical localization. Cell 100:399–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Yu F, Cai Y, Kaushik R, Yang X, Chia W (2003) Distinct roles of Galphai and Gbeta13F subunits of the heterotrimeric G protein complex in the mediation of Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions. J Cell Biol 162:623–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Yu F, Wang H, Qian H, Kaushik R, Bownes M, Yang X, Chia W (2005) Locomotion defects, together with Pins, regulates heterotrimeric G-protein signaling during Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions. Genes Dev 19:1341–1353.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivana Gaziova
    • 1
  • Krishna Moorthi Bhat
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Neuroscience and Cell BiologyUniversity of Texas Medical Branch School of MedicineGalveston
  2. 2.Department of Neuroscience and Cell BiologyUniversity of Texas Medical Branch School of MedicineGalveston

Personalised recommendations