Individualism and Collectivism in Trade Agents

  • Gert Jan Hofstede
  • Catholijn M. Jonker
  • Tim Verwaart
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5027)


Agent-Based Modeling can contribute to the understanding of international trade processes. Models for the effects of culture and cultural differences on agent behavior are required for realistic agent-based simulation of international trade. This paper makes a step toward modeling of culture in agents. The focus is one of the five dimensions of culture according to Hofstede: individualism versus collectivism. The paper presents an analysis based on social science literature about national cultures. For cultural differentiation of agent behavior, rules are formulated for individualist versus collectivist agent behavior with respect to negotiations, cooperation or defection in the delivery phase of transactions, trade partner selection, and trust. Example computations demonstrate the feasibility in multi-agent simulations.


culture negotiation deceit trust simulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gert Jan Hofstede
    • 1
  • Catholijn M. Jonker
    • 2
  • Tim Verwaart
    • 3
  1. 1.Wageningen UniversityWageningen
  2. 2.Delft University of TechnologyDelft
  3. 3.LEI Wageningen URden Haag

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