The imaging of auditory structures faces limitations posed by the location of the inner ear, requiring a combination of high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional imaging faces limitations posed by the adverse acoustic environment during MRI scanning, and requires a combination of passive and active noise cancellation to provide low-noise measurements. Generally speaking, up to now MRI equipment has not adequately catered for the requirements of audiological testing. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans provide a quiet environment but suffer from low spatial resolution and the need to average across participants. Functional MRI (fMRI) in high magnetic fields will allow measurements of cortical tonotopic map reorganization and provide important information about the central aspects of hearing disorders. Diffusion tensor imaging in combination with fMRI offers a currently untapped potential to study central auditory processing disorders. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials and fMRI in audiology is feasible and allows millisecond temporal resolution and millimeter spatial resolution; this approach may provide another combination technique for probing central auditory processing disorders.


Hair Cell Diffusion Tensor Imaging Auditory Cortex Cochlear Implant Auditory Nerve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baumgart F, Kaulisch T, Tempelmann C, Gaschler-Markefski B, Tegeler C, Schindler F, Stiller D, Scheich H (1998) Electrodynamic headphones and woofers for application in magnetic resonance imaging scanners. Medical Phys 25:2068–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaulieu C, Plewes C, Paulson LA, Roy D, Snook L, Concha L, Phillips L (2005) Imaging brain connectivity in children with diverse reading ability. NeuroImage 25:1266–1271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bendor D, Wang X (2005) The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex. Nature 436:1161–1165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bendor D, Wang X (2007) Differential neural coding of acoustic flutter within primate auditory cortex. Nature Neurosci 10:763–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bengtsson SL, Nagy Z, Skare S, Forsman L, Forssberg H, Ullen F (2005) Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. Nature Neurosci 8:1148–1150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bortfeld H, Wruck E, Boas DA (2007) Assessing infants' cortical response to speech using near-infrared spectroscopy. NeuroImage 34:407–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cacace AT (2003) Expanding the biological basis of tinnitus: crossmodal origins and the role of neuroplasticity. Hearing Res 175:112–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chambers J, Akeroyd MA, Summerfield AQ, Palmer AR (2001) Active control of the volume acquisition noise in functional magnetic resonance imaging: method and psychoacoustical evaluation. J Acoust Soc Am 110:3041–3054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chapman BL, Haywood B, Mansfield P (2003) Optimized gradient pulse for use with EPI employing active acoustic control. Magn Reson Med 50:931–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Debener S, Strobel A, Sorger B, Peters J, Kranczioch C, Engel AK, Goebel R (2007) Improved quality of auditory event-related potentials recorded simultaneously with 3-T fMRI: removal of the ballistocardiogram artefact. NeuroImage 34:587–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Demonet JF, Thierry G, Cardebat D (2005) Renewal of the neurophysiology of language: functional neuroimaging. Physiol Rev 85:49–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Di Salle F, Formisano E, Seifritz E, Linden DE, Scheffler K, Saulino C, Tedeschi G, Zanella FE, Pepino A, Goebel R, Marciano E (2001) Functional fields in human auditory cortex revealed by time-resolved fMRI without interference of EPI noise. NeuroImage 13:328–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Eggermont JJ (2001) Between sound and perception: reviewing the search for a neural code. Hearing Res 157:1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eggermont JJ (2005) Tinnitus: neurobiological substrates. Drug Discovery Today 10:1283–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eggermont JJ, Ponton CW (2002) The neurophysiology of auditory perception: from single units to evoked potentials. Audiology Neuro-otology 7:71–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Eggermont JJ, Roberts LE (2004) The neuroscience of tinnitus. Trends Neurosci 27:676–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Formisano E, Kim DS, Di Salle F, van de Moortele PF, Ugurbil K, Goebel R (2003) Mirror-symmetric tonotopic maps in human primary auditory cortex. Neuron 40:859–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fritz JB, Elhilali M, David SV, Shamma SA (2007) Does attention play a role in dynamic receptive field adaptation to changing acoustic salience in A1? Hearing Res 229:186–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giraud AL, Truy E, Frackowiak RS, Gregoire MC, Pujol JF, Collet L (2000a) Differential recruitment of the speech processing system in healthy subjects and rehabilitated cochlear implant patients. Brain 123(Pt 7):1391–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Giraud AL, Lorenzi C, Ashburner J, Wable J, Johnsrude I, Frackowiak R, Kleinschmidt A (2000b) Representation of the temporal envelope of sounds in the human brain. J Neurophysiol 84:1588–1598Google Scholar
  21. Giraud AL, Price CJ, Graham JM, Frackowiak RS (2001) Functional plasticity of language-related brain areas after cochlear implantation. Brain 124:1307–1316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guimaraes AR, Melcher JR, Talavage TM, Baker JR, Ledden P, Rosen BR, Kiang NY, Fullerton BC, Weisskoff RM (1998) Imaging subcortical auditory activity in humans. Human Brain Map 6:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haller S, Wetzel SG, Radue EW, Bilecen D (2006) Mapping continuous neuronal activation without an ON-OFF paradigm: initial results of BOLD ceiling fMRI. Eur J Neurosci 24:2672–2678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hwang JH, Wu CW, Chen JH, Liu TC (2006) Changes in activation of the auditory cortex following long-term amplification: an fMRI study. Acta Otolaryngol 126:1275–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hyde KL, Zatorre RJ, Griffiths TD, Lerch JP, Peretz I (2006) Morphometry of the amusic brain: a two-site study. Brain 129:2562–2570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kilgard MP, Vazquez JL, Engineer ND, Pandya PK (2007) Experience dependent plasticity alters cortical synchronization. Hearing Res 229:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kral A, Eggermont JJ (2007) What's to lose and what's to learn: development under auditory deprivation, cochlear implants and limits of cortical plasticity. Brain Res Rev 56:259–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lane JI, Ward H, Witte RJ, Bernstein MA, Driscoll CL (2004) 3-T imaging of the cochlear nerve and labyrinth in cochlear-implant candidates: 3D fast recovery fast spin-echo versus 3D constructive interference in the steady state techniques. AJNR 25:618–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lazeyras F, Boex C, Sigrist A, Seghier ML, Cosendai G, Terrier F, Pelizzone M (2002) Functional MRI of auditory cortex activated by multisite electrical stimulation of the cochlea. NeuroImage 17:1010–1017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee CC, Schreiner CE, Imaizumi K, Winer JA (2004) Tonotopic and heterotopic projection systems in physiologically defined auditory cortex. Neuroscience 128:871–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lockwood AH, Wack DS, Burkard RF, Coad ML, Reyes SA, Arnold SA, Salvi RJ (2001) The functional anatomy of gaze-evoked tinnitus and sustained lateral gaze. Neurology 56:472–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Logothetis NK, Pauls J, Augath M, Trinath T, Oeltermann A (2001) Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal. Nature 412:150–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lütkenhöner B (2003) Single-dipole analyses of the N100 m are not suitable for characterizing the cortical representation of pitch. Audiology Neuro-otology 8:222–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mitzdorf U (1985) Current source-density method and application in cat cerebral cortex: investigation of evoked potentials and EEG phenomena. Physiological Rev 65:37–100Google Scholar
  35. Moelker A, Pattynama PM (2003) Acoustic noise concerns in functional magnetic resonance imaging. Human Brain Map 20:123–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moisescu-Yiflach T, Pratt H (2005) Auditory event related potentials and source current density estimation in phonologic/auditory dyslexics. Clin Neurophysiol 116:2632–2647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moore JK, Guan YL (2001) Cytoarchitectural and axonal maturation in human auditory cortex. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2:297–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mühlnickel W, Elbert T, Taub E, Flor H (1998) Reorganization of auditory cortex in tinnitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:10340–10343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mukamel R, Gelbard H, Arieli A, Hasson U, Fried I, Malach R (2005) Coupling between neuronal firing, field potentials, and FMRI in human auditory cortex. Science 309:951–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Noreña AJ, Eggermont JJ (2005) Enriched acoustic environment after noise trauma reduces hearing loss and prevents cortical map reorganization. J Neurosci 25:699–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Noreña AJ, Gourévitch B, Aizawa N, Eggermont JJ (2006) Spectrally enhanced acoustic environment disrupts frequency representation in cat auditory cortex. Nature Neurosci 9:932–939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pena M, Maki A, Kovacic D, Dehaene-Lambertz G, Koizumi H, Bouquet F, Mehler J (2003) Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:11702–11705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Plewnia C, Reimold M, Najib A, Brehm B, Reischl G, Plontke SK, Gerloff C (2007) Dose-dependent attenuation of auditory phantom perception (tinnitus) by PET-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Human Brain Map 28:238–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ravicz ME, Melcher JR (2001) Isolating the auditory system from acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaging: Examination of noise conduction through the ear canal, head, and body. J Acoust Soc Am 109:216–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ravicz ME, Melcher JR, Kiang NY (2000) Acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Acoust Soc Am 108:1683–1696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ruytjens L, Willemsen AT, Van Dijk P, Wit HP, Albers FW (2006) Functional imaging of the central auditory system using PET. Acta Otolaryngol 126:1236–1244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sadato N, Yamada H, Okada T, Yoshida M, Hasegawa T, Matsuki K, Yonekura Y, Itoh H (2004) Age-dependent plasticity in the superior temporal sulcus in deaf humans: a functional MRI study. BMC Neurosci 5:56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Salvi RJ, Wang J, Ding D (2000) Auditory plasticity and hyperactivity following cochlear damage. Hearing Res 147:261–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Scarff CJ, Dort JC, Eggermont JJ, GoodYear BG (2004a) The effect of MR scanner noise on auditory cortex activity using fMRI. Human Brain Map 22:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Scarff CJ, Reynolds A, GoodYear BG, Ponton CW, Dort JC, Eggermont JJ (2004b) Simultaneous 3-T fMRI and high-density recording of human auditory evoked potentials. NeuroImage 23:1129–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Scherg M, Ille N, Bornfleth H, Berg P (2002) Advanced tools for digital EEG review: virtual source montages, whole-head mapping, correlation, and phase analysis. J Clin Neurophysiol 19:91–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schreiner CE, Langner G (1988) Periodicity coding in the inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Topographical organization. J Neurophysiol 60:1823–1840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Seemann MD, Beltle J, Heuschmid M, Lowenheim H, Graf H, Claussen CD (2005) Image fusion of CT and MRI for the visualization of the auditory and vestibular system. Eur J Med Res 10:47–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Seghier ML, Boex C, Lazeyras F, Sigrist A, Pelizzone M (2005) FMRI evidence for activation of multiple cortical regions in the primary auditory cortex of deaf subjects users of multichannel cochlear implants. Cereb Cortex 15:40–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shahin A, Roberts LE, Trainor LJ (2004) Enhancement of auditory cortical development by musical experience in children. Neuroreport 15:1917–1921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sigalovsky IS, Melcher JR (2006a) Effects of sound level on fMRI activation in human brainstem, thalamic and cortical centers. Hearing Res 215:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sigalovsky IS, Fischl B, Melcher JR (2006b) Mapping an intrinsic MR property of gray matter in auditory cortex of living humans: a possible marker for primary cortex and hemispheric differences. NeuroImage 32:1524–1537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stegeman DF, Van Oosterom A, Colon EJ (1987) Far-field evoked potential components induced by a propagating generator: computational evidence. Electroencephal Clin Neurophysiol 67:176–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Suzuki M, Kouzaki H, Nishida Y, Shiino A, Ito R, Kitano H (2002) Cortical representation of hearing restoration in patients with sudden deafness. Neuroreport 13:1829–1832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Trimble K, Blaser S, James AL, Papsin BC (2007) Computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging before pediatric cochlear implantation? Developing an investigative strategy. Otol Neurotol 28:317–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Upadhyay J, Ducros M, Knaus TA, Lindgren KA, Silver A, Tager-Flusberg H, Kim DS (2007) Function and connectivity in human primary auditory cortex: a combined fMRI and DTI study at 3 Tesla. Cereb Cortex 17:2420–2432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wang J, Ding D, Salvi RJ (2002) Functional reorganization in chinchilla inferior colliculus associated with chronic and acute cochlear damage. Hearing Res 168:238–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Watkins KE, Vargha-Khadem F, Ashburner J, Passingham RE, Connelly A, Friston KJ, Frackowiak RS, Mishkin M, Gadian DG (2002) MRI analysis of an inherited speech and language disorder: structural brain abnormalities. Brain 125:465–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Weisz N, Wienbruch C, Dohrmann K, Elbert T (2005) Neuromagnetic indicators of auditory cortical reorganization of tinnitus. Brain 128:2722–2731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Weisz N, Muller S, Schlee W, Dohrmann K, Hartmann T, Elbert T (2007) The neural code of auditory phantom perception. J Neurosci 27:1479–1484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wienbruch C, Paul I, Weisz N, Elbert T, Roberts LE (2006) Frequency organization of the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response in normal hearing and in tinnitus. NeuroImage 33:180–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jos J. Eggermont
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of PsychologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations