Web services are increasingly used for building enterprise information systems according to the Service Oriented Architecture (Soa) paradigm. We propose in this paper a tool-equipped methodology allowing the formal modeling and analysis of Web services described in the Bpel language. The discrete-time transition systems modeling the behavior of Bpel descriptions are obtained by an exhaustive simulation based on a formalization of Bpel semantics using the Algebra of Timed Processes (Atp). These models are then analyzed by model checking value-based temporal logic properties using the Cadp toolbox. The approach is illustrated with the design of a Web service for GPS navigation.


Web services formal specification model checking exhaustive simulation process algebra 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alur, R., Dill, D.L.: A theory of timed automata. Theoretical Computer Science 126(2), 183–235 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chirichiello, A., Salaün, G.: Encoding abstract descriptions into executable web services: Towards a formal development. In: Proc. of WI 2005, pp. 457–463. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clarke, E., Grumberg, O., Peled, D.: Model Checking. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ferrara, A.: Web services: a process algebra approach. In: ICSOC, pp. 242–251 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fu, X., Bultan, T., Su, J.: Analysis of interacting BPEL web services. In: Proc. of the 13th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2004), USA, ACM Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fu, X., Bultan, T., Su, J.: WSAT: A tool for formal analysis of web services. In: Alur, R., Peled, D.A. (eds.) CAV 2004. LNCS, vol. 3114, Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garavel, H.: OPEN/CÆSAR: An open software architecture for verification, simulation, and testing. In: Steffen, B. (ed.) ETAPS 1998 and TACAS 1998. LNCS, vol. 1384, pp. 68–84. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Garavel, H., Lang, F.: SVL: a scripting language for compositional verification. In: Proc. of FORTE 2001, IFIP, pp. 377–392. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (2001); Full version available as INRIA Research Report RR-4223Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garavel, H., Lang, F., Mateescu, R., Serwe, W.: CADP 2006: A toolbox for the construction and analysis of distributed processes. In: Damm, W., Hermanns, H. (eds.) CAV 2007. LNCS, vol. 4590, pp. 158–163. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Object Management Group. Business process modeling notation (BPMN) specification (May 2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haddad, S., Melliti, T., Moreaux, P., Rampacek, S.: Modelling web services interoperability. In: Proc. of the 6th Int. Conf. on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2004), Porto, Portugal (April14–17, 2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haddad, S., Moreaux, P., Rampacek, S.: A formal semantics and a client synthesis for a BPEL service. In: ICEIS 2006, Revised Selected Paper. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, vol. 3, Springer, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ISO/IEC. LOTOS — a formal description technique based on the temporal ordering of observational behaviour. International Standard 8807, International Organization for Standardization — Information Processing Systems — Open Systems Interconnection, Genève (September 1989)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jordan, D., Evdemon, J.: Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2.0 - Oasis Standard (April 11, 2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Josuttis, N.: Soa in Practice – The Art of Distributed System Design, O’Reilly Media, City (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lang, F.: EXP.OPEN 2.0: A flexible tool integrating partial order, compositional, and on-the-fly verification methods. In: Romijn, J.M.T., Smith, G.P., van de Pol, J. (eds.) IFM 2005. LNCS, vol. 3771, Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: UPPAAL in a Nutshell. Int. Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer 1(1–2), 134–152 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Magee, J., Kramer, J.: Concurrency: State Models and Java Programs. Wiley, Chichester (1999)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martin, A.J.: Compiling communicating processes into delay-insensitive VLSI circuits. Distributed Computing 1(4), 226–234 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mateescu, R., Sighireanu, M.: Efficient on-the-fly model-checking for regular alternation-free mu-calculus. Science of Computer Programming 46(3), 255–281 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mateescu, R., Thivolle, D.: A model checking language for concurrent value-passing systems. In: Proc. of FM 2008. LNCS, vol. 5014, Springer, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Melliti, T., Boutrous-Saab, C., Rampacek, S.: Verifying correctness of web services choreography. In: Proc. of ECOWS 2006, Zurich, Switzerland, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2006)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morley, M.J.: Safety-level communication in railway interlockings. Science of Computer Programming 29(1-2), 147–170 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nicollin, X., Sifakis, J.: The algebra of timed processes ATP: Theory and application (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salaün, G., Ferrara, A., Chirichiello, A.: Negotiation Among Web Services Using LOTOS/CADP. In: (LJ) Zhang, L.-J., Jeckle, M. (eds.) ECOWS 2004. LNCS, vol. 3250, pp. 198–212. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Salaün, G., Kramer, J., Lang, F., Magee, J.: Translating FSP into LOTOS and networks of automata. In: Davies, J., Gibbons, J. (eds.) IFM 2007. LNCS, vol. 4591, pp. 558–578. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Salaün, G., Serwe, W.: Translating hardware process algebras into standard process algebras — illustration with CHP and LOTOS. In: Proc. of IFM 2005. LNCS, vol. 3371, pp. 287–306. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Turner, K.J.: Representing and analysing composed web services using CRESS. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 30(2), 541–562 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radu Mateescu
    • 1
  • Sylvain Rampacek
    • 2
  1. 1.INRIA / VASYCentre de Recherche Grenoble – Rhône-AlpesFrance
  2. 2.LE2IUniversité de BourgogneDijonFrance

Personalised recommendations