Skip to main content

Some Lessons from the Use of the RAINS Model in International Negotiations

  • Chapter
  • 1325 Accesses

Abstract

The Regional Air Pollution INformation and Simulation (RAINS) model provides a consistent framework for the analysis of strategies to reduce emissions of air pollutants focusing on acidification, eutrophication, and ground-level ozone [9]. The RAINS model combines information on the anthropogenic driving forces of emissions (with databases on current and future economic activities, energy consumption levels, etc.) on the sources of emissions, on emission control options and costs, on the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants, and on environmental sensitivities (i.e., databases on critical loads). In order to create a consistent and comprehensive picture of the options for simultaneously addressing the three environmental problems, the model considers emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A schematic diagram of the RAINS model is displayed in Figure 1.

Keywords

  • European Union
  • Critical Load
  • Emission Control
  • International Negotiation
  • Environmental Target

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-68304-9_10
  • Chapter length: 14 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   179.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-540-68304-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amann M, Lutz M (2000) The revision of the air quality legislation in the European Union related to ground-level ozone. Journal of Hazardous Materials 78:41–62

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Amann M, Makowski M (2001) Assessment of air quality. In: Wierzbicki A, Makowski M, Wessels J (eds) Model-based decision support methodology with environmental applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Boston, MA, USA, London, UK

    Google Scholar 

  3. Barrett K, Sandnes H (1996) Transboundary acidifying air pollution calculated transport and exchange across Europe 1985–1995. In: Berge E (ed) Transboundary air pollution in Europe. EMEP/MSC-W Report 1/96, Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway

    Google Scholar 

  4. CEC (1997) Communication of the Council and the European Parliament on a Community strategy to combat acidification. COM(97) 88 final, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, Belgium

    Google Scholar 

  5. EEA (1996) Joint EMEP/CORINAIR’90 Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook. First edition, Vol. 1–2, European Environmental Agency (EEA), Copenhagen, Denmark

    Google Scholar 

  6. Heyes C, Schöpp W, Amann M, Unger S (1996) A reduced-form model to predict long-term ozone concentrations in Europe. WP-96-12, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria

    Google Scholar 

  7. Posch M, de Smet PAM, Hettelingh JP, Downing RJ (1999) Calculation and mapping of critical thresholds in Europe. Status Report 1999, Coordination Center for Effects, RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  8. Nilsson J, Grennfelt P (1988) Critical loads for sulphur and nitrogen. Nord 1988:97, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Google Scholar 

  9. Schöpp W, Amann M, Cofala J, Heyes C, Klimont Z (1999) Integrated assessment of European air pollution emission control strategies. Environmental Modeling and Software 14(1):1–9

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Suutari R, Amann M, Cofala J, Klimont Z, Posch M, Schöpp W (2001) From economic activities to ecosystem protection in Europe. An uncertainty analysis of two scenarios of the RAINS Integrated Assessment Model. EMEP CIAM/CCE Report 1/2001, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria

    Google Scholar 

  11. Tuinstra W, Hordijk L, Amann M (1999) Using computer models in international negotiations. The case of acidification in Europe. Environment 41(9):33–42

    Google Scholar 

  12. Wettestad J (2002) Clearing the air. Europe tackles transboundary pollution. Environment 44(2):32–40

    Google Scholar 

  13. Zartman IW, Berman M (1982) The practical negotiator. Yale University Press, Newhaven, CT, USA

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2007 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Amann, M. (2007). Some Lessons from the Use of the RAINS Model in International Negotiations. In: Avenhaus, R., Zartman, I.W. (eds) Diplomacy Games. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-68304-9_10

Download citation