Advertisement

Use of Immunodiagnostics for the Early Detection of Biofilm Infections

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Biofilms book series (BIOFILMS, volume 3)

Abstract

Biofilm infections are a therapeutic and diagnostic challenge due to their location and persistence. Specimen culturing is the golden standard for diagnosing bacterial infections, but recent investigation of the ability of this technique to grow bacteria from a biofilm has indicated that it is not reliable. Other testing modalities, such as PCR and serology assays, are either nonspecific for biofilm infections or they include the risk of contamination during sampling. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of an infection usually takes days and requires extensive test procedures, leading to increased healthcare costs and discomfort to the patient. In recent years, many attempts have been performed to design and set up new serology diagnostic assays to obtain early, noninvasive diagnosis of infections sustained by biofilms colonizing native tissues and medical implants. This chapter describes such attempts, including some examples of tests that could eliminate many of the obstacles related to early diagnosis in biofilm infection. The new tools could also allow new medical and surgical approaches to monitor and treat biofilm infections associated with many medical implants.

Keywords

Prosthetic Joint Infection Teichoic Acid Graft Infection Lateral Flow Assay Pharm Biomed Anal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen TM (2002) Ligand targeted therapeutics in anticancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2:750–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bouza E, Burillo A, Munoz P (2002) Catheter-related infections: diagnosis and intravascular treatment. Clin Microbiol Infect May 8(5):265–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brady RA, Leid JG, Camper AK, Costerton JW, Shirtliff ME (2006) Identification of Staphylococcus aureus proteins recognized by the antibody-mediated immune response to a biofilm infection. Infect Immun 74:3415–3426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brakstad OG, Maeland JA, Wergeland HI (1989) Serum antibodies to a Staphylococcus aureus thermonuclease preparation in healthy persons and patients with bacteraemia Serodign. Immunother Infect Dis 3:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bremer C, Ntziachristos V, Weissleder R (2003) Optical-based molecular imaging: contrast agents and potential medical applications. Eur Radiol 13:231–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Calligaro KD, Veith FJ (1991) Diagnosis and management of infected prosthetic aortic graft. Surgery 110:805–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Christensson B, Espersen F, Hedström SA, Kronvall G (1985) Serological assays against Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan, crude staphylococcal antigen and staphylolysin in the diagnosis of serious S. aureus infections. Scand J Infect Dis 17:47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Connaughton M, Lang S, Tebbs SE, Littler WA, Lambert PA, Elliott TS (2001) Rapid serodiagnosis of gram-positive bacterial endocarditis. J Infect 422:140–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cosgrove SE, Qi Y, Kaye KS, Harbarth S, Karchmer AW, Carmeli Y (2005) The impact of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges. Infect Control Hasp Epidemiol 26:166–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elliott TSJ, Tebbs SE, Moss HA, Worthington T, Spare MK, Faroqui MH, Lambert PA (2000) A novel serological test for the diagnosis of central venous catheter-associated sepsis. J Infect 40:262–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Itoh S, Kariya M, Nagano K, Yokoyama S, Fukao T, Yamazaki Y, Mori H (2002) New rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against bacterial surface antigens using filtration plates. Biol Pharm Bull 25:986–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Karamanos NK, Syrokou A, Panagiotopoulou HS, Anastassiou ED, Dimitracopoulos G (1997) The major 20-kDa polysaccharide of Staphylococcus epidermidis extracellular slime and its antibodies as powerful agents for detecting antibodies in blood serum and differentiating among slime-positive and -negative S. epidermidis and other staphylococci species. Arch Biochem Biophys 342:389–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kjerulf A, Espersen F, Tvede M (1994) IgG antibody response in bacterial endocarditis using ELISA with multiple antigens. APMIS 102:736–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kolonitsiou F, Syrokou A, Karamanos NK, Anastassiou ED, Dimitracopoulos G (2001) Immunoreactivity of 80-kDa peptidoglycan and teichoic acid-like substance of slime producing S. epidermidis and specificity of their antibodies studied by an enzyme immunoassay. J Pharm Biomed Anal 24:429–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lamari F, Anastassiou ED, Stamokosta E, Photopoulos S, Xanthou M, Dimitracopoulos G, Karamanos NK (2000a) Determination of slime-producing S. epidermidis specific antibodies in human immunoglobulin preparations and blood sera by an enzyme immunoassay: correlation of antibody titers with opsonic activity and application to preterm neonates. J Pharm Biomed Anal 23:363–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lamari F, Karamanos NK, Papadopoulou-Alataki E, Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou F, Dimitracopoulos G, Anastassiou ED (2000b) Monitoring of two intravenous immunoglobulin. Preparations for immunoglobulin G subclasses and specific antibodies to bacterial surface antigens and relation with their levels in treated immunodeficient patients. J Pharm Biomed Anal 22:1029–1036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lambert PA, van Maurik A, Parvatham S, Akhtar Z, Fraise AP, Krikler SJ (1996) Potential of exocellular carbohydrate antigens of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the serodiagnosis of orthopaedic prosthetic infection. J Med Microbiol 44:355–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lambert PA, Worthington T, Tebbs SE, Elliott TSJ (2000) Lipid S, a novel Staphylococcus epidermidis exocellular antigen with potential for the serodiagnosis of infections. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 29:195–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Patel R, Osmon DR, Hanssen AD (2005) The diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection: current techniques and emerging technologies. Clin Orthop Relat Res 437:55–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rafiq M, Worthington T, Tebbs SE, Treacy RB, Dias R, Lambert PA, Elliott TS (2000) Serological detection of Gram-positive bacterial infection around prostheses. J Bone Joint Surg Br 82:1156–1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rupp ME, Archer GL (1994) Coagulase-negative staphylococci: pathogens associated with medical progress. Clin Infect Dis 19:231–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ryding U, Espersen F, Söderquist B, Christensson B (2002) Evaluation of seven different enzymelinked immunosorbent assays for serodiagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 42:9–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Selan L, Passariello C, Rizzo L, Varesi P, Speziale F, Renzini G, Thaller MC, Fiorani P, Rossolini GM (2002) Diagnosis of vascular graft infection with antibodies against Staphylococcal slime antigens. Lancet 359:2166–2168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Trampuz A, Zimmerli W (2006) Diagnosis and treatment of infections associated with fracture fixation devices. Injury 37(Suppl 2):S59–S66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Weissleder R, Ntziachristos V (2003) Shedding light onto live molecular targets. Nature Med 9:123–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Weiler S, Braun MC, Tan BK, Rosenwald A, Cordier C, Conley ME, Plebani A, Kumararatne DS, Bonnet D, Tournilhac O, Tchernia G, Steiniger B, Staudt LM, Casanova JL, Reynaud CA, Weill JC (2004) Human blood IgM “memory” B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring a prediversified immunoglobulin repertoire. Blood 104(12):3647–3654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wergeland HI, Haaheim LR, Natas OB, Wesenberg F, Oeding P (1989) Antibodies to staphylococcal peptidoglycan and its peptide epitopes, teichoic acid, and lipoteichoic acid in sera from blood donors and patients with staphylococcal infection. J Clin Microbiol 27:1286–1291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Worthington T, Lambert PA, Traube A, Elliott TSJ (2002) A rapid ELISA for the diagnosis of intravascular catheter related sepsis caused by coagulase negative staphylococci. J Clin Pathol 55:41–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Yarwood JM, Schlievert PM (2003) Quorum sensing in Staphylococcus infections. J Clin Invest 112:1620–1625PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public Health SciencesUniversity «La Sapienza»RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyHospital of the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaff
  4. 4.Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Department of Biological SciencesNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA

Personalised recommendations