Predisposing Diseases

  • Gerald U. Denk
  • Ulrich Beuers
  • Johannes R. Bogner
  • Michael Fischereder
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Liver cirrhosis is the final stage of a chronic hepatopathy characterized by widespread fibrosis, nodule formation and destruction of the lobular and vascular architecture of the liver. Alcohol abuse and chronic viral hepatitis are the main causes of liver cirrhosis. Other less frequent causes are inherited (e.g., hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, α1-antitrypsin deficiency) and autoimmune disorders (e.g., autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis) and vascular liver diseases. Any cirrhosis of the liver irrespective of its origin represents a risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma, the most frequent primary malignancy of the liver. The following chapter provides an overview of the most frequent hepatopathies causing cirrhosis of the liver.


Bone Mineral Density Chronic Hepatitis Transplant Recipient Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brewer GJ, Askari FK (2005) Wilson’s disease: clinical management and therapy. J Hepatol 42(Suppl 1):S13–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bruix J, Sherman M (2005) Management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 42:1208–1236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Caballeria L, Pares A, Castells A et al. (2001) Hepatocellular carcinoma in primary biliary cirrhosis: similar incidence to that in hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol 96:1160–1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dienstag JL, McHudchison JG (2006) AGA technical review on the management of hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 130:231–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Göke B, Kolligs F, Rust C (2006) Interner Klinikleitfaden Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie, Endokrinologie, Stoffwechsel. Eigenverlag, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  6. Hassan MM, Hwang LY, Hatten CJ et al. (2002) Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: synergism of alcohol with viral hepatitis and diabetes mellitus. Hepatology 36:1206–1213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kaplan MM, Gershwin ME (2005) Primary biliary cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 353:1261–1273CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Krawitt EL (2006) Autoimmune hepatitis. N Engl J Med 354:54–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Perrillo RP (2005) Current therapy of chronic hepatitis B: benefits and limitations. Sem Liver Dis 25(Suppl 1): 20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Pietrangelo A (2004) Hereditary hemochromatosis-a new look at an old disease. N Engl J Med 350:2383–2397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Rust C, Beuers U (2005) Medical treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Rev Allerg Immunol 28:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Spangenberg HC, Thimme R, von Weizsäcker F et al. (2004) Hepatozelluläres Karzinom. Internist 45:777–785CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Stoller JK, Aboussouan LS (2005) Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Lancet 365:2225–2236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Trevisani F, D’Intino PE, Morselli-Labate AM et al. (2001) Serum alpha-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease: inf luence of HBsAg and anti-HCV status. J Hepatol 34:570–575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Willner IR, Reuben A (2005) Alcohol and the liver. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 21:323–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Worthington J, Cullen S, Chapman R (2005) Immunopathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 28:93–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. Askling J, Fored CM, Brandt L et al. (2005) Risk and case characteristics of tuberculosis in rheumatoid arthritis associated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists in Sweden. Arthritis Rheum 52:1986–1992CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin MT, Leys CM, Feurer ID et al. (2006) Liver transplantation for childhood hepatic malignancy: a review of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database. J Pediatr Surg 41:182–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blake GM, Fogelman I (2002) Bone densitometry, steroids and osteoporosis. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 11:641–647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Caglar M, Adeera L (1999) Factors affecting bone mineral density in renal transplant patients. Ann Nucl Med 13:141–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carmona L, Gomez-Reino JJ, Rodriguez-Valverde V et al. (2005) Effectiveness of recommendations to prevent reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Arthritis Rheum 52:1766–1772CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Castillo M (1994) Brain infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients. Top Magn Reson Imaging 6:3–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cayco AV, Wysolmerski J, Simpson C et al. (2000) Posttransplant bone disease: evidence for a high bone resorption state. Transplantation 70:1722–1728CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman JR, Sheil AG, Disney AP (2001) Recurrence of cancer after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 33:1830–1831CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Denton MD, Magee CC, Ovuworie C, Mauiyyedi S, Pascual M, Colvin RB, Cosimi AB, Tolkoff-Rubin N (2002) Prevalence of renal cell carcinoma in patients with ESRD pre-transplantation: a pathologic analysis. Kidney Int 61:2201–2209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. de Perrot M, Wigle DA, Pierre AF et al. (2003) Bronchogenic carcinoma after solid organ transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg 75:367–371CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eun LY, Gajarski RJ, Graziano JN et al. (2005) Relation of left ventricular diastolic function as measured by echocardiography and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure to rejection in young patients (< or = 31 years) after heart transplantation. Am J Cardiol 96:857–860CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fischereder M, Jauch KW (2005) Prevalence of cancer history prior to renal transplantation. Transpl Int 18:779–784CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Friedewald SM, Molmenti EP, Friedewald JJ (2005) Vascular and nonvascular complications of renal transplants: sonographic evaluation and correlation with other imaging modalities, surgery, and pathology. J Clin Ultrasound 33:127–139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fung JJ, Jain A, Kwak EJ et al. (2001) De novo malignancies after liver transplantation: a major cause of death. Lab Invest 7(Suppl 1):S109–S118Google Scholar
  15. Gerber S, Hohlfeld P (2003) Screening for infectious diseases. Childs Nerv Syst 19:429–432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Glendenning P, Kent GN, Adler BD et al. (1999) High prevalence of osteoporosis in cardiac transplant recipients and discordance between biochemical turnover markers and bone histomorphometry. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 50:347–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gomez MV, Gallardo FG, Cobo J et al. (1996) Identification of AIDS-related tuberculosis with concordant gallium-67 and three-hour delayed thallium-201 scintigraphy. Eur J Nucl Med 23:852–854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Graham CB, Wippold FJ, Pilgram TK et al. (2000) Screening CT of the brain determined by CD4 count in HIV-positive patients presenting with headache. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2:451–454Google Scholar
  19. Heinz-Peer G, Maier A, Eibenberger K et al. (1998) Role of magnetic resonance imaging in renal transplant recipients with acquired cystic kidney disease. Urology 51:534–538CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Henschke CI, McCauley DI, Yankelevitz DF et al. (1999) Early lung cancer action project: overall design and findings from baseline screening. Lancet 354:99–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hopewell PC (1988) Diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2:409–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ishigami K, Stolpen AH, Al-Kass FM et al. (2005) Diagnostic value of gadolinium-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography in patients with suspected hepatic arterial complications after liver transplantation. J Comput Assist Tomogr 29:464–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ishikawa I, Honda R, Yamada Y et al. (2004) Renal cell carcinoma detected by screening shows better patient survival than that detected following symptoms in dialysis patients. Ther Apher Dial 8:468–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Jimenez C, Marques E, Manrique A et al. (2003) Incidence and risk factors of development of lung tumors after liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 37:3970–3972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Karani JB, Yu DF, Kane PA (2005) Interventional radiology in liver transplantation. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 28:271–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kashyap A, Kandeel F, Yamauchi D et al. (2000) Effects of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on recipient bone mineral density: a prospective study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 6:344–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kasiske BL, Vazquez MA, Harmon WE, Brown RS, Danovitch GM, Gaston RS, Roth D, Scandling JD, Singer GG (2000) Recommendations for the outpatient surveillance of renal transplant recipients. American Society of Transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 11(Suppl 15):S1–S86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kasiske BL, Snyder JJ, Gilbertson DT et al. (2004) Cancer after kidney transplantation in the United States. Am J Transplant 4:905–913CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kliem V, Thon W, Krautzig S et al. (1996) High mortality from urothelial carcinoma despite regular tumor screening in patients with analgesic nephropathy after renal transplantation. Transpl Int 9:231–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lamb GW, Baxter GM, Rodger RS et al. (2004) Partial nephrectomy used to treat renal cell carcinoma arising in a live donor transplant kidney. Urol Res 32:89–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee VW, Antonacci V, Tilak S et al. (1999) Intracranial mass lesions: sequential thallium and gallium scintigraphy in patients with AIDS. Radiology 211:2507–2512Google Scholar
  32. Lizerbram EK, Hesselink JR (1997) Neuroimaging of AIDS. I. Viral infections: Neuroimaging Clin N Am 7:261–280Google Scholar
  33. Lorenzen J, Buchert R, Bohuslavizki KH (2001) Value of FDG PET in patients with fever of unknown origin. Nucl Med Commun 22:779–783CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Maisonneuve P, Agodoa L, Gellert R et al. (1999) Cancer in patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease: an international collaborative study. Lancet 354:93–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Marcen R, Caballero C, Galeano C et al. (2005) Lumbar bone mineral density after kidney transplantation: a threeyear prospective study. Transplant Proc 37:1466–1467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller KD, Masur H, Jones EC et al. (2002) High prevalence of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in HIV-infected adults. Ann Intern Med 137:17–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Morath C, Mueller M, Goldschmidt H et al. (2004) Malignancy in renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 15:1582–1588CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Moser E, Tatsch K, Kirsch CM et al. (1990) Value of 67gallium scintigraphy in primary diagnosis and follow-up of opportunistic pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Lung 168(Suppl):692–703CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Nisbeth U, Lindh E, Ljunghall S et al. (1999) Increased fracture rate in diabetes mellitus and females after renal transplantation. Transplantation 67:1218–1222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Doherty MJ, Barrington SF, Campbell M, Lowe J, Bradbeer CS (1997) PET scanning and the human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. J Nucl Med 38(10):1575–1583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Oo YH, Gunson BK, Lancashire RJ et al. (2005) Incidence of cancers following orthotopic liver transplantation in a single center: comparison with national cancer incidence rates for England and Wales. Transplantation. 80:759–764CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Palmer SC, Strippoli GF, McGregor DO (2005) Interventions for preventing bone disease in kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Kidney Dis 45:638–649CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Pedersen RK, Pedersen NT (1996) Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a population based study. Histopathology 28:25–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Pedotti P, Cardillo M, Rossini G et al. (2003) Incidence of cancer after kidney transplant: results from the North Italy transplant program. Transplantation 76:1448–1451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Pellicelli AM, D’Ambrosio C, Vizza CD et al. (2004) HIVrelated pulmonary hypertension. From pathogenesis to clinical aspects. Acta Cardiol 59:323–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Penn I (1997) Evaluation of transplant candidates with preexisting malignancies. Ann Transplant 2:14–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Post MJ, Tate LG, Quencer RM et al. (1988) CT, MR, and pathology in HIV encephalitis and meningitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 151:373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Post MJ, Berger JR, Quencer RM (1991) Asymptomatic and neurologically symptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals: prospective evaluation with cranial MR imaging: Radiology 178(1):131–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Potaris K, Radovancevic B, Thomas CD et al. (2005) Lung cancer after heart transplantation: a 17-year experience. Ann Thorac Surg 79:980–983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Rosen CB, Nagorney DM, Wiesner RH et al. (1991) Cholangiocarcinoma complicating primary sclerosing cholangitis. Ann Surg 213:21–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Rosenbaum DH, Bhojani RA, Dikmen E et al. (2005) Routine computed tomography screening of the chest in highrisk cardiac transplant recipients may improve survival. J Heart Lung Transplant 24:2043–2047CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Roupret M, Peraldi MN, Thaunat O et al. (2004) Renal cell carcinoma of the grafted kidney: how to improve screening and graft tracking. Transplantation 77:146–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Sambrook PN (2005) How to prevent steroid induced osteoporosis. Ann Rheum Dis 64:176–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Santin M, Podzamczer D, Ricart I et al. (1995) Utility of the gallium-67 citrate scan for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients infected with the human immunode-ficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 20:652–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Schneider RF, Hansen NI, Rosen MJ et al. (1996) Lack of usefulness of radiographic screening for pulmonary disease in asymptomatic HIV-infected adults. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Arch Intern Med 156:191–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Sharma AK, Rustom R, Evans A et al. (2004) Utility of serial Doppler ultrasound scans for the diagnosis of acute rejection in renal allografts. Transpl Int 17:138–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Siebels M, Theodorakis J, Liedl B et al. (2000) Large de novo renal cell carcinoma in a 10-year-old transplanted kidney: successful organ-preserving therapy. Transplantation 69:677–679CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Smedby KE, Hjalgrim H, Askling J et al. (2006) Autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma by subtype. J Natl Cancer Inst 98:51–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tatsch K, Knesewitsch P, Kirsch CM et al. (1988) Stellenwert der 67Ga-Szintigraphie in der Primardiagnostik und Verlaufsbeurteilung opportunistischer Pneumonien bei Patienten mit AIDS. Nuklearmedizin 27:219–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Tatsch K, Knesewitsch P, Matuschke A et al. (1990) 67 Gascintigraphy for evaluation of AIDS-related intestinal infections. Nucl Med Commun 11:649–655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Tonami H, Matoba M, Kuginuki Y et al. (2003) Clinical and imaging findings of lymphoma in patients with Sjogren syndrome. J Comput Assist Tomogr 27:517–524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Uzochukwu LN, Bluth EI, Smetherman DH et al. (2005) Early postoperative hepatic sonography as a predictor of vascular and biliary complications in adult orthotopic liver transplant patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 185:1558–1570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Woodle ES, Gupta M, Buell JF et al. (2005) Prostate cancer prior to solid organ transplantation: the Israel Penn International Transplant Tumor Registry experience. Transplant Proc 37:958–959CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Wunderlich H, Wilhelm S, Reichelt O et al. (2001) Renal cell carcinoma in renal graft recipients and donors: incidence and consequence. Urol Int 67:24–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Zintzaras E, Voulgarelis M, Moutsopoulos HM (2005) The risk of lymphoma development in autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 165:2337–2344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald U. Denk
    • 1
  • Ulrich Beuers
    • 2
  • Johannes R. Bogner
    • 3
  • Michael Fischereder
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medicine II, University Hospitals — GrosshadernLudwig-Maximilians-University of MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical CenterUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Medical Policlinic, University Hospitals — InnenstadtLudwig- Maximilians-University of MunichMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations