Epidemiology and Statistics

  • Nikolaus Becker
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The concept of screening is that detection of early disease may permit treatment at a more tractable stage and thus improve prospects for survival and prevention of death from the disease (Morrison 1992). In technical terms, it is the periodical routine examination of the general population or large subgroups of it for early asymptomatic disease by application of dedicated screening tests (UICC 1978; Miller 1985).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abel U (1993) Die Bewertung diagnostischer Tests. Hippokrates Verlag StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  2. Auvinen A, Alexander FE, de Koning HJ, Miller AB (2002) Should we start population screening for prostate cancer? Randomised trials are still needed. Int J Cancer 97:377–378CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartsch G, Horninger W, Klocker H, Reissigl A, Oberaigner W, Schönitzer D, Severi G, Robertson C, Boyle P (2001) Prostate cancer mortality after introduction of prostatespecific antigen mass screening in the Federal State of Tyrol, Austria. Urology 58:417–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cebul RD, Hershey JC, Williams SV (1982) Using multiple tests: series and parallel approaches. Clin Labor Med 2:871–890Google Scholar
  5. Hoffrage U, Lindsey S, Hertwig R, Gigerenzer G (2000) Communicating statistical information. Science 290:2261–2265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. IARC (2005) Cervix cancer screening. IARC handbooks of cancer prevention. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  7. Jung H (2001) Estimate of benefits versus radiation risks from mammographic screening. Der Radiologe 41:385–395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lin SCC (1999) Some Results on Combinations of two Binary Screening Tests. Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics 9:81–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. McIntosh MW, Pepe MS (2002) Combining Several Screening Tests: Optimality of the Risk Score. Biometrics 58:657–664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Miller AB (ed.) (1985) Screening for cancer. Academic Press, Toronto MontrealGoogle Scholar
  11. Morrison AS (1992) Screening in Chronic Disease. Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics Volume 19. Oxford University Press, New York OxfordGoogle Scholar
  12. Moss SM and UK Trial of Early Detection of Breast Cancer Group (1999) 16-year mortality from breast cancer in the UK Trial of Early Detection of Breast Cancer. Lancet 353:1909–1914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Paley PJ (2001) Ovarian cancer screening: are we making any progress?. Curr Opin Oncol 13:399–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Perry N, Broeders M, de Wolf C, Törnberg S, Holland R, von Karsa L, Puthaar E (eds.) (2006) European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis — fourth edition. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  15. Prorok PC (1995) Screening studies. In: Greenwald P, Kramer BS, Weed DL. Cancer Prevention and Control. Marcel Dekker, New York Basel Hon Kong 1995, pp 225–242Google Scholar
  16. Schilling FH, Spix C, Berthold F, Erttmann R, Fehse N, Hero B, Klein G, Sander J, Schwarz K, Treuner J, Zorn U, Michaelis J (2002) Neuroblastoma screening at one year of age. N Engl J Med 346:1047–1053CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) (1978) Clinical Oncology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Walter SD, Day NE (1983) Estimation of the Duration of a Pre-Clincal Disease State using Screening Data. Am J Epidemiol 118:865–886PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikolaus Becker
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cancer EpidemiologyGerman Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)HeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations