Regulation of Cell Division and the Cytoskeleton by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Higher Plants

  • László Bögre
  • Ornella Calderini
  • Irute Merskiene
  • Pavla Binarova
Part of the Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation book series (RESULTS, volume 27)


The microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase (MAP2-kinase), now better known as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), was initially discovered in association with the cytoskeleton, and was later also implicated in cell division. The importance of mitogenic stimulation in plant development roused interest in finding the plant homologues of MAPKs. However, data on plant MAPKs in cell division are rather sparse and fragmentary. Therefore we place the available information on cell cycle control of MAPKs in plants into a broader context. We discuss four aspects of cell division control: cell proliferation and the G1/S-phase transition, G2-phase and mitosis, cytokinesis, and cytoskeletal reorganisation. Future work will reveal to what extent plants use signalling pathways that are similar or different to those of animal or yeast cells in regulating cell divisions.


Mitotic Spindle Cortical Microtubule Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Preprophase Band Cell Plate Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ádám AL, Pike S, Hoyos ME, Stone JM, Walker JC, Novacky A (1997) Rapid and transient activation of a myelin basic protein kinase in tobacco leaves treated with harpin from Erwinia amylovora. Plant Physiol 115: 853–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen SSL, Karsenti E (1997) XMAP310: a Xenopus rescue-promoting factor localised to the mitotic spindle. J Cell Biol 139: 975–983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen SSL, Ashford AJ, Tournebize R, Gavet O, Sobel A, Hyman AA, Karsenti E (1997) Mitotic chromatin regulates phosphorylation of stathmin/Op18. Nature 389: 640–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asada T, Collings D (1997) Molecular motors in higher plants. Trends Plant Sci 2: 29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asada T, Sonobe S, Shibaoka H (1991) Microtubule translocation in the cytokinetic apparatus of cultured tobacco cells. Nature 350: 238–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asada T, Kuriyama R, Schibaoka H (1997) TKRP125, a kinesin-related protein involved in the centrosome-independent organisation of the cytokinetic apparatus in tobacco By-2 cells. J Cell Sci 110: 179–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Assaad FF, Mayer U, Wanner G, Jürgens G (1996) The KEULE gene is involved in cytokinesis in Arabidopsis. Mol Gen Genet 253: 267–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Banno H, Hirano K, Nakamura T, Irie K, Nomoto S, Matsumoto K, Machida Y (1993) NPK1, a tobacco gene that encodes a protein with a domain homologous to yeast BCK1, STE11, and BY2 protein kinases. Mol Cell Biol 13: 4745–4752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Becraft PW (1998) Receptor kinases in plant development. Trends Plant Sci 3: 384–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Belmont LD, Mitchison TJ (1996) Identification of a protein that interacts with tubulin dimers and increases the catastrophe rate of microtubules. Cell 84: 623–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Binarova P, Cihalikova J, Dolezel J (1993) Localization of MPM-2 recognized phosphoproteins and tubulin during cell cycle progression in synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Cell Binl Tnt 9: 8847–8856Google Scholar
  12. Binarova P, Rennie P, Fowke L (1994) Probing microtubule organizing centers with MPM-2 in dividing cells of higher plants using immunofluorescence and immunogold technique. Protoplasma 180: 106–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Binarova P, Hause B, Dolezel J, Draber P (1998a) Association of y-tubulin with kinetochore/centromeric region of plant chromosomes. Plant J 14: 751–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Binarova P, Dolezel J, Draber P, Heberle-Bors E, Strnad M, Bögre L. (1998b). Treatment of Vicia faba root tip cells with specific inhibitors to cyclin-dependent kinases leads to abnormal spindle formation. Plant J 16: 697–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blangy A, Lane HA, de’Hérin P, Harper M, Kress M, Nigg EA (1995) Phosphorylation by p34cdc2 regulates spindle association of human Eg5, a kinesin-related motor essential for bipolar spindle formation in vivo. Cell 83:1159–1169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bögre L, Jonak C, Mink M, Meskiene I, Traas J, Ha DCH, Swoboda I, Plank C, Wagner E, HeberleBors E, Hirt H (1996) Developmental and cell cycle regulation of alfalfa nucMs1, a plant homolog of the yeast Nsrl and mammalian nucleolin. Plant Cell 8: 417–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bögre L, Calderini O, Binarova P, Mattauch M, Till S, Kiegerl S, Jonak C, Pollaschek C, Baker P, Huskisson NS, Hirt H, Heberle-Bors E (1999) A MAP kinase is activated late in mitosis and becomes localised to the plane of cell division. Plant Cell 11: 101–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bottazzi ME, Assoian RK (1997) The extracellular matrix and mitogenic growth factors control G1 phase cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Trends Cell Biol 7: 348–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bowser J, Reddy ASN (1997) Localization of a kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein in dividing cells of Arabidopsis and tobacco. Plant J 12: 1429–1437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brunet S, Polanski Z, Verlac M-H, Kubiak JZ, Maro B (1998) Bipolar meiotic spindle formation without chromatin. Curr Biol 8:1231–1234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Calderini O, Bögre L, Vicente O, Binarova P, Heberle-Bors E, Wilson C (1998) A cell cycle regulated MAP kinase with a possible role in cytokinesis in tobacco cells. J Cell Sci 111: 3091–3100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Campbell MS, Gorbsky GJ (1995) Microinjection of mitotic cells with the 3F3/2 anti-phosphoepitope antibody delays the onset of anaphase. J Cell Sci 129: 1195–1204Google Scholar
  23. Chan J, Rutten T, Lloyd C (1996) Isolation of microtubule-associated proteins from carrot cytoskeletons: a 120 kDa MAP decorates all four microtubule arrays and the nucleus. Plant J 10: 251–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chiri S, De Nadai C, Ciapa B (1998) Evidence for MAP kinase activation during mitotic division. J Cell Sci 111: 2519–2527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Colasanti J, Cho SO, Wick S, Sundaresan V (1993) Localization of the functional p34cdc2 homolog of maize in root tip and stomatal complex cells: association with predicted division sites. Plant Cel 15: 1101–1111Google Scholar
  26. Cyr RJ, Palevitz BA (1989) Microtubule-binding proteins from carrot. I. Initial characterisation and microtubule bundling. Planta 177: 245–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dahl M, Meskiene I, Bögre L, Ha DTC, Swoboda I, Hubmann R, Hirt H, Heberle-Bors E (1995) The D-type alfalfa cyclin gene cycMs4 complements G1 cyclin-deficient yeast and is induced in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Plant Cell 7:1847–1857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Drewes G, Lichtenberg-Kraag B, Doring F, Mandelkow EM, Biernat J, Goris J, Doree M, Mandelkow E (1992) Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase transforms tau protein into an Alzheimer-like state. EMBO J 11: 2131–2138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Earnest S, Khokhlatchev A, Albanesi JP, Barylko B (1996) Phosphorylation of dynamin by ERK2 inhibits the dynamin-microtubule interaction. FEBS Lett 396: 62–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fisher K, Schopfer P (1997) Interaction of auxin, light, and mechanical stress in orienting microtubules in relation to tropic curvature in the epidermis of maize coleoptiles. Protoplasma 196: 108–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fuerst RUA, Soni R, Murray JAH, Lindsey K (1996) Modulation of cyclin transcript levels in cultured cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 112: 1023–1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Galaktionov K, Jessus C, Beach D (1995) Rafl interaction with Cdc25 phosphatase ties mitogenic signal transduction to cell cycle activation. Genes Dev 9: 1046–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Giddings TH, Staehelin LA (1991) Microtubule-mediated control of microfibril deposition: a reexamination of the hypothesis. In : Lloyd CW(ed) The cytoskeletal basis of plant growth and form. Academic Press, London, pp 85–99Google Scholar
  34. Glotzer M (1997) The mechanism and control of cytokinesis. Curr Opin Cell Biol 9: 15–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gorbsky GJ (1997) Cell cycle checkpoints: arresting progress in mitosis. BioEssays 19: 193–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gotoh Y, Nishida E, Matsuda S, Shiina N, Kosako H, Shiokava K, Akiyama T, Ohta K, Sakai H (1991) In vitro effects on microtubule dynamics of purified Xenopus M phase-activated MAP kinase. Nature 349: 251–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gu X, Verma DPS (1996) Phragmoplastin, a dynamin-like protein associated with cell plate formation in plants. EMBO J 15: 695–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gu X, Verma DPS (1997) Dynamics of phragmoplastin in living cells during cell plate formation and uncoupling of cell elongation from the plane of cell division. Plant Cell 9: 157–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Heald R, Tournebize R, Blank T, Sandaltzopoulos R, Becker P, Hyman A, Karsenti E (1996) Selforganisation of microtubules into bipolar spindles around artificial chromosomes in Xenopus egg extracts. Nature 382: 420–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heider H, Hug C, Lucocq JM (1994) A 40 kDa myelin basic protein kinase, distinct from Erkl and Erk2, is activated in mitotic HeLa cells. Eur J Biochem 219: 513–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hepler PK, Hush JM (1996) Behavior of microtubules in living plant cells. Plant Physiol 112: 455–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hirt H (1997) Multiple roles of MAP kinases in plant signal transduction. Trends Plant Sci 2: 11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hush J, Wu L, John PC, Hepler LH, Hepler PK (1996) Plant mitosis promoting factor disassembles the microtubule preprophase band and accelerates prophase progression in Tradescantia. Cell Biol Int 20: 275–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hush JM, Overall RL (1996) Cortical microtubule reorientation in higher plants: dynamics and regulation. J Microsc 181: 129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hush JM, Hawes CR, Overall RL (1990) Interphase microtubule reorientation predicts a new cell polarity in wounded pea roots. J Cell Sci 96: 47–61Google Scholar
  46. Huttly AK, Phillips AL (1995) Gibberellin-regulated expression in oat aleurone cells of two kinases that show homology to MAP kinase and ribosomal protein kinase. Plant Mol Biol 27: 1043–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jiang CJ, Sonobe S (1993) Identification and preliminary characterisation of a 65 kDa higher plant microtubule-associated protein. J Cell Sci 105: 891–901Google Scholar
  48. Jonak C, Pay A, Bögre L, Hirt H, Heberle-Bors E (1993) The plant homologue of MAP kinase is expressed in a cell cycle-dependent and organ-specific manner. Plant J 3: 611–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jones HD, Smith SJ, Desikan R, Plakidou-Dymock S, Lovegrove A, Hooley K (1998) HHeterotrimeric G proteins are implicated in gibberellin induction of a-amylase gene expression in wild oat aleurone. Plant Cell 10: 245–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kakimoto T (1998) Cytokinin signaling. Curr Opin Plant Biol 1: 399–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Katsuta J, Shiboka H (1992) Inhibition by kinase inhibitors of the development and the disappearance of the preprophase band of microtubules in tobacco BY-2 cells. J Cell Sci 103: 397–405Google Scholar
  52. Kennelly PJ, Krebs EG (1991) Consensus sequences as substrate specificity determinants for protein kinases and protein phosphatases. J Biol Chem 266: 15555–15558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Knetsch MLW, Wang M, Snaar-Jagalska BE, Heimovaara-Dijkstra S (1996) Abscisic acid induces mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in barley aleurone protoplasts. Plant Cell 8: 1061–1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kovtun Y, Chiu W-L, Zeng W, Sheen J (1998) Suppression of auxin signal transduction by a MAPK cascade in higher plants. Nature 395: 716–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kuang J, Ashorn CL (1993) At least two kinases phosphorylate the MPM-2 epitope during Xenopus oocyte maturation. J Cell Biol 123: 859–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laird AD, Taylor SJ, Oberst M, Shalloway D (1995) Raf-1 is activated during mitosis. J Biol Chem 270: 26742–26745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lambert AM (1993) Microtubule-organizing centres in higher plants. Curr Opin Cell Biol 5: 116–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lauber MH, Waizenegger I, Steinmann T, Schwarz H, Mayer U, Hwang I, Lukowitz W, Jürgens G (1997) The Arabidopsis KNOLLE protein is a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin. J Cell Biol 139: 1485–1493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lavoie JN, L’Allemain G, Brunet A, Müller R, Pouyssegur J (1996) Cyclin D1 expression is regulated positively by the p42/44MAPK and negatively by the p38/HOGMAPK pathway. J Biol Chem 271: 20608–20616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Liao H, Li G, Yen TJ (1994) Mitotic regulation of microtubule crosslinking activity of CENP-E kinetochnre nrotein Science 265: 394–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Liu B, Cyr RJ, Palevitz BA (1996) A kinesin-like protein, KatAp in the cells of Arabidopsis and other plants. Plant Cell 8: 119–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Liu SH, Lee HH, Chen JJ, Chuang CF, Ng SY (1994) Serum response element-regulated transcription in the cell cycle: possible correletion with microtubule reorganisation. Cell Growth Differ 5: 447–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lloyd CW (1994) Why should stationary plant cells have such dynamic microtubules? Mol Biol Cell 5: 1277–1280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lukowitz W, Mayer U, Jürgens G (1996) Cytokinesis in the Arabidopsis embryo involves the syntaxin-related KNOLLE gene product. Cell 84: 61–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Machida Y, Nakashima M, Morikiyo K, Banno H, Ishikawa M, Soyano T, Nishihama R (1998) MAPKKK-related protein kinase NPK1: regulation of the M phase of plant cell cycle. J Plant Res 111: 243–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marklund U, Larsson N, Gradin MH, Brattsand G, Gullberg M (1996) Oncoprotein 18 is a phosphorylation-responsive regulator of microtubule dynamics. EMBO J 15: 5290–5298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Marshall CJ (1996) Ras effectors. Curr Opin Cell Biol 8: 197–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mayumi K, Shibaoka H (1996) The cyclic reorientation of cortical microtubules on walls with a crossed polylamellate structure: effects of plant hormones and an inhibitor of protein kinases on the nrogression of the cycle. Prntnnlasma 195: 112–112Google Scholar
  69. Mazia D (1987) The chromosome cycle and the centrosome cycle in the mitotic cycle. Int Rev Cytol 100: 49–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Merdes A, Cleveland DW (1997) Pathways of spindle pole formation: different mechanisms; conserved components. J Cell Biol 138: 953–956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Meskiene I, Bögre L, Glaser W, Balogh J, Brandstötter M, Zwerger K, Ammerer G, Hirt H (1998) MP2C, a plant protein phosphatase 2C, functions as a negative regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in yeast and plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1938–1943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mews M, Sek, FJ, Moore R, Volkmann D, Gunning BES, John PCL (1997) Mitotic cyclin distribution during maize cell division: implications for the sequence diversity and function of cyclins in plants. Protoplasma 200: 128–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meyerowitz EM (1997) Genetic control of cell division patterns in developing plants. Cell 88: 299–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Minshull J, Sun H, Tonks NK, Murray AW (1994) A MAP kinase-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint in Xenopus egg extracts. Cell 79: 475–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mitchison TJ (1988) Microtubule dynamics and kinetochore function in mitosis. Annu Rev Cell Biol 4: 527–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mitsui H, Hasezawa S, Nagata T, Takahashi H (1996) Cell cycle-dependent accumulation of a kinesin-like protein, KatB/C, in svchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Mol Biol 30: 177–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mizoguchi T, Gotoh Y, Nishida E, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Hayashida N, Iwasaki T, Kamada H, Shinozaki K (1994) Characterization of two cDNAs that encode MAP kinase homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana and analysis of the possible role of auxin in activating such kinase activities in cultured cells. Plant J 5: 111–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mizuno K (1994) Inhibition of giberellin-induced elongation, reorientation of cortical microtubules and change of isoform of tubulin in epicotyl segments of azuki bean by protein kinase inhibitors. Plant Cell Physiol 35: 1149–1157Google Scholar
  79. Morishima-Kawashima M, Kosik KS (1996) The pool of MAP kinase associated with microtubules is small but constitutively active. Mol Biol Cell 7: 893–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Murata T, Wada M (1991) Effects of centrifugation on preprophase-band formation in Adiantum protonemata. Planta 183: 391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Murray JAH (1997) The retinoblastoma protein is in plants. Trends Plant Sci 2: 82–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nick P, Lambert AM, Vantard M (1995) A microtubule-associated protein in maize is expressed during phytochrome-induced cell elongation. Plant J 8: 835–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nicklas RB (1997) How cells get the right chromosome. Science 275: 632–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ookata K, Hisanaga S, Bulinski JC, Murofushi H, Aizawa H, Itoh TJ, Hotani H, Okumura E, Tachibana K, Kishimoto T (1995) Cyclin B interaction with microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) targets p34cdc2 kinase to microtubules and is a potential regulator of M-phase microtubule dynamics. I Cell Biol 128: 849–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Palmer A, Gavin AC, Nebrada RA (1998) A link between MAP kinase and p34cdc2/cyclin B during oocyte maturation: p90Rsk phosphorylates and inactivates the p34cdc2 inhibitory kinase Mytl. EMBO J 17: 5037–5047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Patham NI, Ashendel CL, Geahlen, RL, Harrison ML (1996) Activation of T cell Raf-1 at mitosis requires the protein-tyrosine kinase Lck. J Biol Chem 271: 30315–30317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peterson RT, Schreiber SL (1998) Connecting mitogens and the ribosome. Curr Biol 8: 248–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Philipova R, Whitaker M (1998) MAP kinase activity increases during mitosis in early sea urchin embryos. J Cell Sci 111: 2497–2505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Plakidou-Dymock S, Dymock D, Hookley R (1998) A higher plant seven transmembrane receptor that influences sensitivity to cytokinins. Curr Biol 8: 315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Reszka AA, Seger R, Diltz CD, Krebs EG, Fischer EH (1995) Association of mitogen-activated protein kinase with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 8881–8885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Robinson MJ, Cobb MH (1997) Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Curr Opin Cell Biol 9: 180–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Roche S, Fumagalli S, Courtneidge SA (1995) Requirement for Src family protein tyrosine kinases in G2 for fibroblast cell division. Science 269: 1567–1569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rommel C, Hafen E (1998) Ras — a versatile cellular switch. Curr Biol 8: 412–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sagata N (1997) What does Mos do in oocytes and somatic cells? BioEssays 19: 13–21Google Scholar
  95. Samuels AL, Giddings TH, Staehelin LA (1995) Cytokinesis in tobacco BY-2 and root tip cells: a new model of cell plate formation in higher plants. J Cell Biol 130: 1345–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. pSawin KE, Mitchison TJ (1995) Mutations in the kinesin-like protein Eg5 disrupting localisation to the mitotic spindle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 4289–4293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schellenbaum P, Vantard M, Peter, C, Fellous A, Lambert AM (1993) Coassembly properties of higher plant microtubule-associated proteins with purified brain and plant tubulins. Plant J 3: 253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Shapiro PS, Vaisberg E, Hunt AJ, Tolwinski NS, Whalen AM, McIntosh R, Ahn NG (1998) Activation of the MKK/ERK pathway during somatic cell mitosis: direct interactions of active ERK with kinetochores and regulation of the mitotic 3F3/2 phosphoantigen. J Cell Biol 142: 1533–1545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shiina N, Moriguchi T, Ohta K, Gotoh Y, Nishida E (1992) Regulation of a major microtubuleassociated protein by MPF and MAP kinase. EMBO J 11: 3977–3984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Smirnova E, Bajer AS (1998) Early stages of spindle formation and independence of chromosome and microtubule cycles in Haemantus endosperm. Cell Motil Cytoskel 40: 22–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sohrmann M, Schmidt S, Hagan I, Simanis V (1998) Asymmetric segregation on spindle poles of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe septum-inducing protein kinase Cdc7p. Genes Dev 12: 84–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Solano R, Ecker JR (1998) Ethylene gas: perception, signaling and response. Curr Opin Plant Biol 1: 393–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Staehelin LA , Hepler PK (1996) Cytokinesis in higher plants. Cell 84: 821–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stoppin V, Lambert AM, Vantard M (1996) Plant microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) affect microtubule nucleation and growth at the plant nuclei and mammalian centrosomes. Eur J Cell Biol 69: 11–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Suzuki K, Shinshi H (1995) Transient activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein kinase in tobacco cells treated with fungal elicitor. Plant Cell 7: 639–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Taagepera S, Dent P, Her JH, Sturgill TW, Gorbsky GJ (1994) The MPM-2 antibody inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase activity by binding to an epitope containing phosphothreonine-183. Mol Biol Cell 5: 1243–1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Takenaka K, Gotoh Y, Nishida E (1997) MAP kinase is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint but is dispensible for the normal M phase entry and exit in Xenopus egg cell cycle extracts. J Cell Biol 136: 1091–1097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Takenaka K, Moriguchi T, Nishida E (1998) Activation of the protein kinase p38 in the spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic arrest. Science 280: 599–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Takesue K, Shibaoka H (1998) The cyclic reorientation of cortical microtubules in epidermal cells of azuki bean epicotyls: the role of actin filaments in the progression of the cycle. Planta 205: 539–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tamemoto H, Kadowaki T, Tobe K, Ueki K, Izumi T, Chatan Y, Kohno M, Kasuga M, Yazaki Y, Akanuma Y (1992) Biphasic activation of two mitogen-activated protein kinases during the cell cycle in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 267: 20293–20297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Taylor SJ, Shalloway D (1996) Cell cycle-dependent activation of Ras. Curr Biol 6: 1621–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tena G, Renaudin J-P (1998) C-ytosolic acidification but not auxin at physiological concentration is an activator of MAP kinases in tobacco cells. Plant J 16: 173–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thomas G, Hall MN (1997) TOR signalling and control of cell growth. Curr Opin Cell Biol 9: 782–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Toda T, Shimanuki M, Yanagida M (1991) Fission yeast genes that confer resistance to staurosporine encode an AP-1-like transcription factor and a protein kinase related to the mammalian ERK1/MAP2 and budding yeast FUS3 and KSS1 kinases. Genes Dev 5: 60–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tournebize R, Andersen SSL, Verde F, Dorée M, Karsenti E, Hyman AA (1997) Distinct roles of PP1 and PP2A-like phosphatases in control of microtubule dynamics during mitosis. EMBO J 16: 5537–5549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Treisman R (1996) Regulation of transcription by MAP kinase cascades. Curr Opin Cell Biol 8: 205–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vantard M, Schellenbaum P, Fellous A, Lambert AM (1991) Characterisation of maize microtubule-associated proteins, one of which is immunologically related to tau. Biochemistry 30: 9334–9340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vantard M, Peter C, Fellous A, Schellenbaum P, Lambert AM (1994) Characterisation of a 100 kDa heat-stable microtubule-associated protein from higher plants. Eur J Biochem 220: 847–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Van’t Hof (1974) Control of the cell cycle in higher plants. In: Pallida GM, Cameron IL, Zimmerman A (eds) Cell Cycle Controls. Academic Press, New York, pp 77–85Google Scholar
  120. Vaughn KC, Harper JD (1998) Microtubule-organising centers and nucleating sites in land plants. Int Rev Cytol 181: 75–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Venverloo CJ (1990) Regulation of the plane of cell division in vacuolated cells. II. Wound-induced changes. Protoplasma 155: 85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Verde F, Berrez J-M, Antony C, Karsenti E (1991) Taxol-induced microtubule asters in mitotic extracts of Xenopus eggs: requirement for phosphorylated factors and cytoplasmic dynein. J Cell Biol 112: 1177–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Verlhac MH, Kubiak JZ, Clarke HJ, Maro B (1994) Microtubule and chromatin behavior follow MAP kinase activity but not MPF activity during meiosis in mouse oocytes. Development 120: 1017–1025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Verma DPS, Gu X (1996) Vesicle dynamics during cell plate formation in plants. Trends Plant Sci 1:145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Walker L, Estelle M (1998) Molecular mechanisms of auxin action. Curr Opin Plant Biol 1: 434–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wang H, Qi Q, Schorr P, Cutler AJ, Crosby WL, Fowke LC (1998) ICK1, a cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor from Arabidopsis thaliana interacts with both Cdc2a and CycD3 and its expression is induced by abscisic acid. Plant J 15: 501–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wang XM, Zhai Y, Ferrell JE (1997) A role for mitogen-activated protein kinase in the spindle assembly checkpoint in XTC cells. J Cell Biol 137: 433–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Waters JC, Salmon ED (1997) Pathways of spindle assembly. Curr Opin Cell Biol 9: 37–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wick SM (1991) Spatial aspects of cytokinesis in plant cells. Curr Opin Cell Biol 3: 253–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wilson C, Voronin V, Touraev A, Vicente O, Heberle-Bors E (1997) A developmentally regulated MAP kinase activated by hydration in tobacco pollen. Plant Cell 9: 2093–2100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wilson C, Pfosser M, Jonak C, Hirt H, Heberle-Bors E, Vicente O (1998) Evidence for the activation of a MAP kinase upon phosphate-induced cell cycle re-entry in tobacco cells. Physiol Plant 102: 532–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wolniak SM, Larsen P (1995) The timing of protein kinase activation events in the cascade that regulates mitotic progression in Tradescantia stamen hair cells. Plant Cell 7: 431–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wood KW, Sakowicz R, Goldstein LS, Cleveland DW (1997) CENP-E is a plus end-directed kinetochore motor required for metaphase chromosome alignement. Cell 91: 357–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wymer C, Lloyd C (1996) Dynamic microtubules: implications for cell wall patterns. Trends Plant Sci 1: 222–228Google Scholar
  135. Zecevic M, Catling AD, Eblen ST, Renzi L, Hittle JC, Yen TJ, Gorbsky GJ, Weber MJ (1998) Active MAP kinase in mitosis: localisation at kinetochores and association with motor protein CENP-E. J Cell Biol 142: 1547–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zhang S, Klessig DF (1998) The tobacco wounding-activated protein kinase is encoded by SIPK. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 7433–7438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Zhang SH, Broom MA, Lawton MA, Hunter T, Lamb CJ (1994) Atpkl, a novel ribosomal protein kinase gene from Arabidopsis II. Functional and biochemical analysis of the encoded protein. J Biol Chem 269: 17593–17599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Zhu X, Assoian RK (1995) Integrin-dependent activation of MAP kinase: a link to shape-dependent cell proliferation. Mol Biol Cell 6: 273–282PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • László Bögre
    • 1
  • Ornella Calderini
    • 1
    • 3
  • Irute Merskiene
    • 1
  • Pavla Binarova
    • 2
  1. 1.Vienna Biocenter, Institute of Microbiology and GeneticsUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Institute of MicrobiologyAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Instituto di Ricerche sul Miglioramento Genetico Piante Foraggere CNRPerugiaItaly

Personalised recommendations