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The Endocrine Control of the Hair Follicle

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Abstract

• Hair follicles can produce different types of hair (length, thickness, colour) at various times in an individual’s life due to the follicle’s capacity to regenerate a new hair during the hair cycle. This allows hairs to change to correlate with alterations in season or sexual development, etc.

• The type of hair produced is under endocrine control with androgens being key regulators of human hair growth; several other hormones are involved, particularly in other mammals, including melatonin, prolactin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and oestrogens.

• Androgens have paradoxically different effects on human hair follicles depending on their body site. This ranges from stimulation, e.g. on the face, axilla, pubis and chest, through no effect on the eyelashes, to inhibition on parts of the scalp, causing balding in genetically susceptible individuals.

• All androgen effects require an intracellular androgen receptor in the hair follicle cells and most, except for pubic and axillary follicles, also require the intracellular enzyme 5α-reductase type 2 to metabolize testosterone to its more potent metabolite 5α- dihydrotestosterone.

• Exactly how androgens regulate hair follicles is not fully established, but most aspects appear to be coordinated via the mesenchyme-derived dermal papilla situated at the base of the follicle. In the current hypothesis androgens from the blood bind to androgen receptors in dermal papilla cells, altering their gene expression, particularly of paracrine signalling molecules, which influence the activity of the other follicular cells. Key signals identified so far include insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in growth stimulation and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in inhibition.

• Androgen-dependent hair disorders are not easily controlled. Currently, antiandrogens, such as cyproterone acetate or spironolactone, can be used for hirsutism in women and 5α-reductase type 2 inhibitors, such as finasteride, for androgenetic alopecia. The most common non-endocrine treatment for hair loss is minoxidil, a vasoactive drug. Further understanding of the mechanism of androgen action in hair follicles should lead to the development of better treatments.

Keywords

  • Androgen Receptor
  • Hair Follicle
  • Hair Growth
  • Human Hair
  • Scalp Hair

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Randall, V. (2008). The Endocrine Control of the Hair Follicle. In: Blume-Peytavi, U., Tosti, A., Trüeb, R. (eds) Hair Growth and Disorders. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-46911-7_2

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