Role of Immediate Early Gene Expression in Cortical Morphogenesis and Plasticity

  • Katrin I. Andreasson
  • Walter E. Kaufmann
Part of the Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation book series (RESULTS, volume 39)


During the development of the central nervous system, there is a fundamental requirement for synaptic activity in transforming immature neuronal connections into organized functional circuits (Katz 1996). The molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent adaptive changes in neurons are believed to involve regulated cascades of gene expression. Immediate early genes (IEGs) comprise the initial cascade of gene expression responsible for initiating the process of stimulus-induced adaptive change, and were identified initially as transcription factors that were regulated in brain by excitatory synaptic activity. More recently, a class of neuronal immediate early genes has been identified that encodes growth factors, signaling molecules, extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins, and cytoskeletal proteins that are rapidly and transiently expressed in response to glutamatergic neurotransmission. This review focuses on the neuronal immediate early gene (nIEG) response, in particular, the class of “effector” immediate early gene proteins that may directly modify neuronal and synaptic function.


NMDA Receptor Visual Cortex Synaptic Activity Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Early Gene Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ai X, Cappuzzello J, Hall AK (1999) Activin and bone morphogenetic proteins induce calcitonin gene-related peptide in embryonic sensory neurons in vitro. Mol Cell Neurosci 14:506–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiba A, Chen C, Herrup K, Rosenmund C, Stevens CF, Tonegawa S (1994) Reduced hippocampal long-term potentiation and context-specific deficit in associative learning in mGluR1 mutant mice. Cell 79:365–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akbarian S, Bunney WE, Potkin SG (1993) Altered distribution of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase cells in frontal lobe of schizophrenics implies disturbances of cortical development. Gen Psychiatry 50:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander GE, DeLong MR, Strick PL (1986) Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annu Rev Neurosci 9:357–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ameerun RF, de Winter JP, van den Eijnden-van Raaij AJ, den Hertog J, de Laat SW, Tertoolen LG (1996) Activin and basic fibroblast growth factor regulate neurogenesis of murine embryonal carcinoma cells. Cell Growth Differ 7:1679–1688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson SA, Volk DW, Lewis DA (1996) Increased density of microtubule associated protein 2immunoreactive neurons in the prefrontal white matter of schizophrenic subjects. Schizophr Res 19:111–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andreasson K, Worley P (1995) Induction of β-A activin expression by synaptic activity and during neocortical development. Neuroscience 69:781–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ango F, Pin JP, Tu JC, Xiao B, Worley PF, Bockaert J, Fagni L (2000) Dendritic and axonal targeting of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor is regulated by homer1 proteins and neuronal excitation. J Neurosci 20:8710–8716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Artola A, Singer W (1987) Long-term potentiation and NMDA receptors in rat visual cortex. Nature 330:649–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bading H, Ginty DD, Greenberg ME (1993) Regulation of gene expression in hippocampal neurons by distinct calcium signaling pathways. Science 260:181–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baranes D, Lederfein D, Huang YY, Chen M, Bailey CH, Kandel E (1998) Tissue plasminogen activator contributes to the late phase of LTP and to synaptic growth in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Neuron 21:813–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baude A, Nusser Z, Roberts JD, Mulvihill E, Mcllhinney RA, Somogyi P (1993) The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1 alpha) is concentrated at perisynaptic membrane of neuronal subpopulations as detected by immunogold reaction. Neuron 11:771–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bayer SA, Altman J (1991) Neocortical development. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Bear MF, Kleinschmidt A, Gu Q, Singer W (1990) Disruption of experience-dependent synaptic modifications in striate cortex by infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist. J Neurosci 10: 909–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Beneken J, Tu JC, Xiao B, Nuriya M, Yuan JP, Worley PF, Leahy DJ (2000) Structure of the Homer EVH1 domain-peptide complex reveals a new twist in polyproline recognition. Neuron 26: 143–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berke JD, Paletzki RF, Aronson GJ, Hyman SE, Gerfen CR (1998) A complex program of striatal gene expression induced by dopaminergic stimulation. J Neurosci 18:5301–5310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Blanton MG, LoTurco JJ, Kriegstein AR (1990) Endogenous neurotransmitter activates Nmethyl-D-aspartate receptors on differentiating neurons in embryonic cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:8027–8030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blaschuk OW, Sullivan DS, Pouliot Y (1990) Identification of a cadherin cell adhesion recognition seauence. Dev Biol 139:227–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. qBliss TVP, Collingridge GL (1993) A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boguski MS, McCormick F (1993) Proteins regulating Ras and its relatives. Nature 366:643–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bortolotto ZA, Fitzjohn SM, Collingridge GL (1999) Roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors in LTP and LTD in the hippocampus. Curr Opin Neurobiol 9:299–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brakeman PR, Lanahan AA, O’Brien R, Roche K, Barnes CA, Huganir RL, Worley PF (1997) Homer: a protein that selectively binds metabotropic glutamate receptors. Nature 386:284–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Breder CD, Dewitt D, Krang RP (1995) Characterization of inducible cyclooxygenase in rat brain. J Comp Neurol 355:296–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Castren E, Zafra F, Thoenen H, Lindholm D (1992) Light regulates expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in rat visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:9444–9448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Castren E, Berninger B, Leingartner A, Lindholm D (1998) Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in hippocampus by neuronal activity. Prog Brain Res 117:57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Catania MV, Landwehrmeyer GB, Testa CM, Standaert DG, Penney JB, Young AB (1994) Metabotropic glutamate receptors are differentially regulated during development. Neuroscience 61:481–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chaudhuri A, Cynader MS (1993) Activity-dependent expression of the transcription factor Zif268 reveals ocular dominance columns in monkey visual cortex. Brain Res 605:349–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clark S, Dunlop M (1991) Modulation of phospholipase A2 activity by epidermal growth factor in CHO cells transfected with human EGF receptor. Biochem J 274:715–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cochran BH, Keffel AC, Stiles CD (1983) Molecular cloning of gene sequences regulated by platelet-derived growth factor. Cell 33:939–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen NA, Kaufmann WE, Worley PF, Rupp F (1997) Expression of agrin in the developing and adult rat brain. Neuroscience 76:581–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cole A, Saffen D, Baraban J, Worley P (1989) Rapid increase of an immediate early gene mRNA in hippocampal neurons by synaptic NMDA receptor activation. Nature 340:474–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Constantine-Paton M, Cline HT, Debski E (1990) Patterned activity, synaptic convergence, and the NMDA receptor in developing visual pathways. Annu Rev Neurosci 13:129–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crair MC, Malenka RC (1995) A critical period for long-term potentiation at thalamocortical synapses. Nature 375:325–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Curran T, Franza BR (1988) Fos and Jun: the AP-1 connection. Cell 55:395–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Daadi M, Arcellana-Panlilio MY, Weiss S (1998) Activin co-operates with fibroblast growth factor 2 to regulate tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the basal forebrain ventricular zone progenitors. Neuroscience 86:867–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Darland DC, Nishi R (1998) Activin A and follistatin influence expression of somatostatin in the ciliary ganglion in vivo. Dev Biol 202:293–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davies BJ, Pickard BS, Steel M, Morris RG, Lathe R (1998) Serine proteases in rodent hippocampus. J Biol Chem 273:23004–23011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Davis AA, Matzuk MM, Reh TA (2000) Activin A promotes progenitor differentiation into photoreceptors in rodent retina. Mol Cell Neurosci 15:11–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. DeGeorge JJ, Walenga R, Carbonetto S (1988) Nerve growth factor rapidly stimulates arachidonate metabolism in PC12 cells: potential involvement in nerve fiber growth. J Neurosci Res 21:323–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dobbing J, Sands J (1979) Comparative aspects of the brain growth spurt. Early Hum Dev 3:79–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dobbing J, Smart JL (1974) Vulnerability of developing brain and behavior. Br Med Bull 30: 164–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Doherty P, Rowett LH, Moore SE, Mann DE, Walsh FS (1991) Neurite outgrowth in response to transfected N-CAM and N-cadherin reveals fundamental differences in neuronal responsiveness to CAMs. Neuron 6:247–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dudek SM, Bear MF (1989) A biochemical correlate of the critical period for synaptic modification in the visual cortex. Science 246:673–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fann MJ, Patterson PH (1994) Neuropoietic cytokines and activin A differentially regulate the phenotype of cultured sympathetic neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Farmer SF, Harrison LM, Ingram DA, Stephens JA (1991) Plasticity of the central motor pathways in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Neurology 41:1505–1510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Flor PJ, Gomeza J, Tones MA, Kuhn R, Pin JP, Knopfel T (1996) The C-terminal domain of the mglurl metabotropic glutamate receptor affects sensitivity to agonists. J Neurochem 67:58–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fosnaugh JS, Bhat RV, Yamagata K, Worley PF, Baraban JM (1995) Activation of arc, a putative “effector” immediate early gene, by cocaine in rat brain. J Neurochem 64:2377–2380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fox K, Daw NW (1993) Do NMDA receptors have a critical function in visual cortical plasticity? Trends Neurosci 16:116–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fox K, Zahs K (1994) Critical period control in sensory cortex. Curr Opin Neurobiol 4:112–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fox K, Sato H, Daw NW (1989) The location and function of NMDA receptors in cat and kitten visual cortex. J Neurosci 9:2443–2454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Galter D, Bottner M, Unsicker K (1999) Developmental regulation of the serotonergic transmitter phenotype in rostral and caudal raphe neurons by transforming growth factor-betas. J Neurosci Res 56:531–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ganzler SIRC (1995) R-Cadherin expression during nucleus formation in chicken forebrain neuromeres. J Neurosci 15:4157–4172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gerfen CR (1992) The neostriatal mosaic: multiple levels of compartmental organization. Trends Neurosci 15:133–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gewurz H, Zhang XH, Lint TF (1995) Structure and function of the pentraxins. Curr Opin Immunol 7:54–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ghosh A, Shatz CJ (1992) Involvement of subplate neurons in the formation of ocular dominance columns. Science 255:1441–1443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ghosh A, Carnahan J, Greenberg ME (1994a) Requirement for BDNF in activity-dependent survival of cortical neurons. Science 263:1618–1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ghosh A, Ginty DD, Bading H, Greenberg ME (1994b) Calcium regulation of gene expression in neuronal cells. J Neurobiol 25:294–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Goodman AR, Cardozo T, Abagyan R, Altmeyer A, Wisniewski HG, Vilcek J (1996) Long pentraxins: an emerging group of proteins with diverse functions. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 7:191–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Goodman CS, Shatz CJ (1993) Developmental mechanisms that generate precise patterns of neuronal connectivity. Cell/Neuron 72(10):77–98Google Scholar
  60. Greenough WT (1984) Structural correlates of information storage in the mammalian brain: a review and hypothesis. Trends Neurosci 7:229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gruzellier J, Flor-Henry P (1979) Hemispheric asymmetries of function in psychopathology. Elsevier, North Holland, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Gualandris A, Jones TE, Strickland S, Tsirka SE (1996) Membrane depolarization induces calciumdependent secretion of tissue plasminogen activator. J Neurosci 16:2220–2225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Guzowski JF, McNaughton BL, Barnes CA, Worley PF (1999) Environment-specific expression of the immediate-early gene Arc in hippocampal neuronal ensembles. Nat Neurosci 2:1120–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Guzowski JF, Lyford GL, Stevenson GD, Houston FP, McGaugh JL, Worley PF, Barnes CA (2000) Inhibition of activity-dependent arc protein expression in the rat hippocampus impairs the maintenance of long-term potentiation and the consolidation of long-term memory. J Neurosci 20:3993–4001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hagihara K, Tsumoto T, Sato H, Hata Y (1988) Actions of excitatory amino acid antagonists on geniculo-cortical transmission in the cat’s visual cortex. Exp Brain Res 69:407–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Handler JA, Danilowicz RM, Eling TE (1990) Mitogenic signaling by epidermal growth factor (EGF), but not platelet derived growth factor, requires arachidonic acid metabolism in BALB/c 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem 265:3669–3673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Herschman HR (1994) Regulation of prostaglandin synthase-1 and prostaglandin synthase-2. Cancer Metast Rev 13:241–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hirata M, Ushikubi F, Narumiya S (1995) Prostaglandin I receptor and prostaglandin D receptor. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal 12:393–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Horton JC, Howking DR (1996) An adult-like pattern of ocular dominance columns in striate cortex of newborn monkeys prior to visual experience. J Neurosci 16:1791–1807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Huang YY, Bach ME, Lipp HP, Zhuo M, Wolfer DP, Hawkins RD, Schoonjans L, Kandel ER, Godfraind JM, Mulligan R et al. (1996) Mice lacking the gene encoding tissue-type plasminogen activator show a selective interference with late-phase long-term potentiation in both Schaffer collateral and mossy fiber pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:8699–8704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hubel DH, Wiesel TN (1970) The period of susceptibility to the physiological effects of unilateral eye closure in kittens. J Physiol 206:419–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hubei DH, Wiesel TN, LeVay S (1977) Plasticity of ocular dominance columns in monkey striate cortex. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 278:377–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hughes PE, Alexi T, Williams CE, Clark RG, Gluckman PD (1999) Administration of recombinant human Activin-A has powerful neurotrophic effects on select striatal phenotypes in the quinolinic acid lesion model of Huntington’s disease. Neuroscience 92:197–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hunt SP, Pini A, Evan G (1987) Induction of c -fos-like protein in spinal cord neurons following sensory stimulation. Nature 328:632–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Huttenlocher PR (1991) Dendritic and synaptic pathology in mental retardation. Pediatr Neurol 7:79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Iwahori Y, Saito H, Torii K, Nishiyama N (1997) Activin exerts a neurotrophic effect on cultured hippocampal neurons. Brain Res 760:52–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kammermeier PJ, Xiao B, Tu JC, Worley PF, Ikeda SR (2000) Homer proteins regulate coupling of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors to N-type calcium and M-type potassium channels. J Neurosci 20:7238–7245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Katz LC, Shatz CJ (1996) Synaptic activity and the construction of cortical circuits. Science 274:1133–1138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kaufmann WE (2002) Cortical histogenesis. In: Aminoff MJ, Daroff RB (eds) Encyclopedia of the neurological sciences. Section on neuroanatomy and clinical localization (Masdeu JC ed). Academic Press, New York (in press)Google Scholar
  80. Kaufmann WE, Moser HW (2000) Dendritic anomalies in disorders associated with mental retardation. Cereb Cortex 10:981–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kaufmann WE, Worley PF (1999) The role of early neural activity in regulating immediate early gene expression in the cerebral cortex. MRDD Res Rev 5:41–50Google Scholar
  82. Kaufmann WE, Yamagata K, Andreasson KI, Worley PF (1994) Rapid response genes as markers of cellular signaling during cortical histogenesis: their potential in understanding mental retardation. Int J Dev Neurosci 12:263–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kaufmann WE, Worley PF, Pegg J, Bremer M, Isakson P (1996) Cox-2, a synaptically induced enzyme, is expressed by excitatory neurons at postsynaptic sites in rat cerebral cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:2317–2321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kaufmann WE, Andreasson KI, Isakson PC, Worley PF (1997) Cyclooxygenases and the central nervous system. Prostaglandins 54:601–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kirkwood A, Bear MF (1994) Homosynaptic long-term depression in the visual cortex. J Neurosci 14:3404–3412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kirkwood A, Lee HK, Bear MF (1995) Co-regulation of long-term potentiation and experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in visual cortex by age and experience. Nature 375:328–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kleinschmidt A, Bear MF, Singer W (1987) Blockade of “NMDA” receptors disrupts experience-dependent plasticity of kitten striate cortex. Science 238:355–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lau LF, Nathans D (1991) The hormonal control regulation of gene trascription. In: Cohen P, Foulkes JG (eds) Molecular aspects of cell regulation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 257–293Google Scholar
  89. Lauterborn JC, Rivera S, Stinis CT, Hayes VY, Isackson PJ, Gall CM (1996) Differential effects of protein synthesis inhibition on the activity-dependent expression of BDNF transcripts: evidence for immediate-early gene responses from specific promoters. J Neurosci 16:7428–7436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lein ES, Hohn A, Shatz CJ (2000) Dynamic regulation of BDNF and NT-3 expression during visual system development. J Comp Neurol 420:1–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lerea LS, Carlson NG, McNamara JO (1995) N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors activate transcription of c-fos and NGFI-A by distinct phospholipase A2-requiring intracellular signaling pathways. Mol Pharmacol 47:1119–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lerea LS, Carlson NG, Simonato M, Morrow J, Roberts JL McNamara JO (1997) Prostaglandin F 2alpha is required for NMDA receptor-mediated induction of c-fos mRNA in dentate gyrus neurons. J Neurosci 17:117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Linzer DIH, Nathans D (1983) Growth-related changes in specific mRNAs of cultured mouse cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4271–4275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. LoTurco JJ, Kriegstein AR (1991) Clusters of coupled neuroblasts in embryonic neocortex. Science 252:563–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Luth HJ, Fischer J, Celio MR (1992) Soybean lectin binding neurons in the visual cortex of the rat contains parvalbumin and are covered by glial nets. J Neurocytol 21:211–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lyford GL, Yamagata K, Kaufmann WE, Barnes CA, Sanders LK, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Lanahan AA, Worley PF (1995) Arc, a growth factor and activity-regulated gene, encodes a novel cytoskeleton-associated protein that is enriched in neuronal dendrites. Neuron 14: 1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. MacConell LA, Lawson MA, Mellon PL, Roberts VJ (1999) Activin A regulation of gonadotropinreleasing hormone synthesis and release in vitro. Neuroendocrinology 70:246–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Maffei L, Galli-Resta L (1990) Correlation of the discharges of neighboring rat retinal ganglion cells during prenatal life. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:2861–2864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mather JP, Woodruff TK, Krummen LA (1992) Paracrine regulation of reproductive function by inhibin and activin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 201:1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Mather JP, Moore A, Li RH (1997) Activins, inhibins, and follistatins: further thoughts on a growing family of regulators. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 215:209–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Mathur M, Goodwing L, Cowin P (1994) Interactions of the cytoplasmic domain of the desmosomal cadherin Dsgl with plakoglobin. J Biol Chem 269:14075–14080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. McConnell SK (1988) Fates of visual cortical neurons in the ferret after isochronic and heterochronic transplantation. J Neurosci 8:945–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. McCrea PD, Turck CW, Gumbiner B (1991) A homolog of the armadillo protein in Drosophila (plakoglobin) associated with E-cadherin. Science 254:1359–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Meister M, Wong ROL, Baylor DA, Shatz CJ (1991) Synchronous bursts of action potentials in ganglion cells of the developing mammalian retina. Science 252:939–943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Miller KD, Chapman B, Stryker MP (1989) Visual responses in adult cat visual cortex depend on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5183–5187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Molliver ME, Krist DA (1975) The fine structural demonstration of monoaminergic synapses in immature rat neocortex. Neurosci Lett 1:305–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mooney R, Penn AA, Gallego R, Shatz CJ (1996) Thalamic relay of spontaneous retinal activity prior to vision. Neuron 17:863–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Morgan J, Cohen D, Hempstead J, Curran T (1987) Mapping patterns of c-fos expression in the central nervous system after seizure. Science 237:192–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mrzljak L, Uylings HB, Van Eden CG, Judas M (1990) Neuronal development in human prefrontal cortex in prenatal and postnatal stages. Prog Brain Res 85:185–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Muller CM, Griesinger CB (1998) Tissue plasminogen activator mediates reverse occlusion plasticity in visual cortex. Nat Neurosci 1:47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nose A, Tsufi K, Takeichi M (1990) Localization of specificity determining sites in cadherin cell adhesion molecules. Cell 61:147–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. O’Brien RJ, Xu D, Petralia RS, Steward O, Huganir RL, Worley P (1999) Synaptic clustering of AMPA receptors by the extracellular immediate-early gene product Narp. Neuron 23:309–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. O’Donovan M, Sernagor E, Sholomenko G, Ho S, Antal M, Yee W (1992) Development of spinal motor networks in the chick embryo. J Exp Zool 261:261–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ono K, Yamano T, Shimada M (1991) Formation of an ipsilateral corticospinal tract after ablation of cerebral cortex in neonatal rat. Brain Dev 13:348–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ozawa M, Kemler R (1992) Molecular organization of the uvomorulin-catenin complex. J Cell Biol 116:989–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Peppelenbosch MP, Tertoolen LG, Hage WJ, de Laat SW (1993) Epidermal growth factor-induced actin remodeling is regulated by 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase products. Cell 74: 565–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Petit TL, LeBoutillier JC, Gregorio A, Libstug H (1988) The pattern of dendritic development in the cerebral cortex of the rat. Brain Res 469:209–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Qian Z, Gilbert ME, Colicos MA, Kandel ER, Kuhl D (1993) Tissue-plasminogen activator is induced as an immediate-early gene during seizure, kindling and long-term potentiation. Nature 361:453–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Quian Z, Gilbert ME, Colicos MA, Kandel ER, Kuhl D (1993) Tissue plasminogen activator is induced as an immediate-early gene during seizure, kindling and long-term potentiation. Nature 361:453–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Raff MC, Barres BA, Burne JF, Coles HS, Ishizaki Y, Jacobson MD (1993) Programmed cell death and the control of cell survival: lessons from the nervous system. Science 262:695–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rakic P (1976) Prenatal genesis of connections subserving ocular dominance in the rhesus monkey. Nature 261:467–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Redies CaTM (1996) Cadherins in the developing central nervous system: an adhesive code for segmental and functional subdivisions. Development 180:413–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Redies C, Takeichi M (1993) Expression of N-cadherin during development of the mouse brain. Dev Dyn 197:26–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Redies C, Engelhart K, Takeichi M (1993) Differential expression of N- and R-cadherin in functional neuronal systems and other structures of the developing chicken brain. J Comp Neurol 333:398–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Reiter HO, Stryker MP (1988) Neural plasticity without postsynaptic action potentials: less-active inputs become dominant when kitten visual cortical cells are pharmacologically inhibited. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:3623–3627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Reiter HO, Waitzman DM, Stryker MP (1986) Cortical activity blockade prevents ocular dominance plasticity in the kitten visual cortex. Exp Brain Res 65:182–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Reuther GW, Der CJ (2000) The Ras branch of small GTPases: Ras family members don’t fall far from the tree. Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:157–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Riehl R, Johnson K, Bradley R, Grunwald GB, Cornel E, Lilienbaum A, Holt CE (1996) Cadherin function is required for axon outgrowth in retinal ganglion cells in vivo. Neuron 17:837–848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rosen KM, McCormack MA, Villa-Komaroff L, Mower GD (1992) Brief visual experience induces immediate early gene expression in cat visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:5437–5441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Saffen DW, Cole AJ, Worley PF, Christy BA, Ryder K, Baraban JM (1988) Convulsant-induced increase in transcription factor messenger RNAs in rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:7795–7799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Saito T, Hatada M, Iwanaga S, Kawabata S (1997) A newly identified horseshoe crab lectin with binding specificity to 0-antigen of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. J Biol Chem 272: 30703–30708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sakamoto K, Kamimura M, Kurozumi S, Ito S (1995) Prostaglandin F2 alpha receptor. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal 12:405–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sano K, Tanihara H, Heimark RL, Obata S, Davidson M, St John T, Taketani S, Suzuki S (1993) Protocadherins: a large family of cadherin-related molecules in central nervous system. EMBO J 12:249–2256Google Scholar
  134. Schlaggar BL, Fox K, O’Leary DDM (1993) Postsynaptic control of plasticity in developing somatosensory cortex. Nature 364:623–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Seeds NW, Williams BL, Bickford PC (1995) Tissue plasminogen activator induction in Purkinje neurons after cerebellar motor learning. Science 270:1992–1994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sellmayer A, Uedelhoven WM, Weber PC, Bonventre JV (1991) Endogenous non-cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid modulate growth and mRNA levels of immediate-early response genes in rat mesangial cells. J Biol Chem 266:3800–3807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Sharp FR, Sagar SM, Hicks K, Lowenstein D, Hisanaga K (1991) c-fos mRNA, Fos, and Fos-related antigen induction by hypertonic saline and stress. J Neurosci 11:2321–2331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Shatz CJ (1990) Impulse activity and the patterning of connections during CNS development. Neuron 5:745–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Shatz CJ, Stryker MP (1988) Prenatal tetrodotoxin infusion blocks segregation of retinogeniculate afferents. Science 242:87–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sheng M, Greenberg M (1990) The regulation and function of c-fos and other immediate early genes in the nervous system. Neuron 4:477–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Smith WL, Marnett LJ, DeWitt DL (1991) Prostaglandin and thromboxane biosynthesis. Pharmacol Ther 48:153–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Stappert J, Kemler R (1994) A short core region of E-cadherin is essential for catenin binding and is highly phosphorylated. Cell Adhesion Commun 2:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Steward O (1997) mRNA localization in neurons: a multipurpose mechanism? Neuron 18:9–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Steward O, Wallace CS, Lyford GL, Worley PF (1998) Synaptic activation causes the mRNA for the IEG Arc to localize selectively near activated postsynaptic sites on dendrites. Neuron 21: 741–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tan A, Moratalla R, Lyford GL, Worley P, Graybiel AM (2000) The activity-regulated cytoskeletalassociated protein arc is expressed in different striosome-matrix patterns following exposure to amphetamine and cocaine. J Neurochem 74:2074–2078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tretter YP, Hertel M, Munz B, ten Bruggencate G, Werner S, Alzheimer C (2000) Induction of activin A is essential for the neuroprotective action of basic fibroblast growth factor in vivo. Nat Med 6:812–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Trudeau VL, Theodosis DT, Poulain DA (1997) Activin facilitates neuronal development in the rat amygdala. Neurosci Lett 237:33–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Tsui C, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Barnes CA, Worley PF (1996) Narp, a novel member of the pentraxin family, promotes neurite outgrowth and is dynamically regulated by neuronal activity. J Neurosci 16:2463–2478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Tsumoto T (1992) Long-term potentiation and long-term depression in the neocortex. Prog Neurobiol 39:209–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tsumoto T, Hagihara K, Sato K, Hata Y (1987) NMDA receptors in the visual cortex of young kittens are more effective than those of adult cats. Nature 327:513–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Tu JC, Xiao B, Naisbitt S, Yuan JP, Petralia RS, Brakeman P, Doan A, Aakalu VK, Lanahan AA, Sheng M, Worley PF (1999) Coupling of mGluR/Homer and PSD-95 complexes by the Shank family of postsynaptic density proteins. Neuron 23:583–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Uchida N, Honjo Y, Johnson KR, Wheelock MJ, Takeichi M (1996) The catenin/cadherin adhesion system is localized in synaptic junctions bordering transmitter release zones. J Cell Biol 135:767–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Valentin E, Lambeau G (2000) Increasing molecular diversity of secreted phospholipases A(2) and their receptors and binding proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1488:59–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Van den Pol AN (1994) Metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1 distribution and ultrastructural localization in hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol 349:615–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. van den Pol AN, Romano C, Ghosh P (1995) Metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 subcellular distribution and developmental expression in hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol 362:134–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wallace CS, Lyford GL, Worley PF, Steward O (1998) Differential intracellular sorting of immediate early gene mRNAs depends on signals in the mRNA sequence. J Neurosci 18:26–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Wang HW, Sui S (1999) Pentameric two-dimensional crystallization of rabbit C-reactive protein on lipid monolayers. J Struct Biol 127:283–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Waters RS, McCandlish CA, Cooper NG (1990) Early development of SI cortical barrel subfield representation of forelimb in normal and deafferented neonatal rat as delineated by peroxidase conjugated lectin, peanut agglutinin (PNA). Exp Brain Res 81:234–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Williams K, Russell SL, Shen YM, Molinoff PB (1993) Developmental switch in the expression of NMDA receptors occurs in vivo and in vitro. Neuron 10:267–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wong ROL, Meister M, Shatz CJ (1993) Transient period of correlated bursting activity during development of the mammalian retina. Neuron 11:923–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Worley PF, Cole AJ, Saffen DW, Baraban JM (eds) (1990a) Transcription factor regulation in brain: focus on activity and NMDA dependent regulation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  162. Worley PF, Cole AJ, Murphy TM, Christy BA, Nakabeppu Y, Baraban JM (1990b) Synaptic regulation of immediate early genes in brain. Cold Springs Harb Symp Quant Biol 55:213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Worley PF, Christy BA, Nakabeppu Y, Bhat RV, Cole AL Baraban JM (1991) Constitutive expression of zif268 in neocortex is regulated by synaptic activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 5106–5110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Xiao B, Tu JC, Petralia RS, Yuan JP, Doan A, Breder CD, Ruggiero A, Lanahan AA, Wenthold RJ, Worley PF (1998) Homer regulates the association of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with multivalent complexes of homer-related, synaptic proteins. Neuron 21:707–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Xiao B, Tu JC, Worley PF (2000) Homer: a link between neural activity and glutamate receptor function. Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:370–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Yamagata K, Andreasson K, Kaufmann WE, Barnes CA, Worley PF (1993) Expression of a mitogeninducible cyclooxygenase in brain neurons: regulation by synaptic activity and glucocorticoids. Neuron 11:371–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Yamagata K, Sanders LK, Kaufmann WE, Barnes CA, Nathans D, Worley PF (1994) Rheb, a growth factor and synaptic activity regulated gene, encodes a novel Ras-related protein. J Biol Chem 269:16333–16339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Yamagata K, Andreasson K, Sugiura H, Maru E, Irie Y, Miki N, Hayashi Y, Yoshioka M, Kaneko K, Kato H, Worley PF (1999) Arcadlin is an activity-regulated cadherin involved in long-term potentiation. J Biol Chem 274:19473–19479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Yee WM, Worley PF (1997) Rheb interacts with Raf-1 kinase and may function to integrate growth factor- and protein kinase A-dependent signals. Mol Cell Biol 17:921–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Yermakova AV, Rollins J, Callaham LM, Rogers J, O’Banion MK (1999) Cyclooxygenase-1 in human Alzheimer and control brain: quantitative analysis of expression by microglia and CA3 hippocampal neurons. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58:1135–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Yuste R, Nelson DA, Rubin WW, Katz LC (1995) Neuronal domains in developing neocortex: mechanisms of coactivation. Neuron 14:7–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Yuste R, Peinado A, Katz LC (1992) Neuronal domains in developing neocortex. Science 257: 665–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zahedi K (1996) Characterization of the binding of serum amyloid P to type IV collagen. J Biol Chem 271:14897–14902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Zhuo M, Holtzman DM, Li Y, Osaka H, DeMaro J, Jacquin M, Bu G (2000) Role of tissue plasminogen activator receptor LRP in hippocampal long-term potentiation. J Neurosci 20: 542–549PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katrin I. Andreasson
    • 1
  • Walter E. Kaufmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Neurology and NeuroscienceJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience, Pathology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry and Behavioral Studies, and Radiological ScienceJohns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Kennedy Krieger InstituteBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations