Quantum entanglement, perhaps the most non-classical manifestation of quantum information theory, cannot be used to transmit information between remote parties. Yet, it can be used to reducethe amount of communication required to process a variety of distributedcomputational tasks. We speak of pseudo-telepathy when quantum entanglementserves to eliminate the classical need to communicate. In earlier examples of pseudo-telepathy, classical protocols could succeedwith high probability unless the inputs were very large. Here we present a simple multi-party distributed problem for which the inputsand outputsconsist of a single bit per player, and we present a perfectquantum protocolfor it. We prove that no classical protocol can succeedwith a probability that differs from 1/2 by more than a fraction that is exponentially small in the number of players. This could be used to circumvent the detection loophole in experimental tests of nonlocality.
KeywordsSuccess Probability Quantum Entanglement Classical Strategy Classical Communication Probabilistic Strategy
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