Exact and Distributed Algorithms for Collaborative Camera Control

  • Dezhen Song
  • A. Frank van der Stappen
  • Ken Goldberg
Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR, volume 7)

Abstract

We propose the ShareCam Problem: controlling a single robotic pan, tilt, zoom camera based on simultaneous frame requests from n online users. To solve it, we propose a new piecewise linear metric, Intersection Over Maximum (IOM), for the degree of satisfaction for each users. To maximize overall satisfaction, we present several algorithms. For a discrete set of m distinct zoom levels, we give an exact algorithm that runs in O(n2m) time. The algorithm can be distributed to run in O(nm) time at each client and in O(nlog n + mn) time at the server.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Agarwal and J. Erickson. Geometric range searching and its relatives. In B. Chazelle, J. E. Goodman, and R. Pollack, editors, Advances in Discrete and Computational Geometry, volume 23 of Contemporary Mathematics.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Agassounon, A. Martinoli, and R. Goodman. A scaleable distributed algorithm for allocating workers in embedded systems in embedded systems. In IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Conference, 2001.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.Z.Broder. On the resemblance and containment of documents. In SEQS: Sequences ‘81, 1998.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. F. Bohringer and H. Choset, editors. Distributed Manipulation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Z. Broder, M. Charikar, A.M. Frieze, and M.Mitzenmacher. Min-wise independent permutations. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 60 (3): 630–659, 2000.CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Z. Bulter, S. Byrnes, and D. Rus. Distributed motion planning for modular robots with unit-compressible modules. In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System (IROS), 2001.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. J. Cannon. Point-And-Direct Telerobotics: Object Level Strategic Supervisory Control in Unstructured Interactive Human-Machine System Environments. PhD thesis, Stanford Mechanical Engineering, June 1992.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Chen, Z. Wu, Y. Wang, and D. Tan C. Dong. Cooperative assembly algorithm of multiple distributed agent based robotic system. In 30th International Symposium on Robotics, 1999.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Chong, T. Kotoku, K. Ohba, K. Komoriya, N. Matsuhira, and K. Tanie. Remote coordinated controls in multiple telerobot cooperation. In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, April 2000.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. H. Crouch and E. Mazur. Peer instruction: Ten years of experience and results. Americian Journal of Physices, 69 (9), 2001.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Eppstein. Fast construciton of planar two-centers. In Proc. 8th ACM-SIAM Sympos. Discrete Algorithms, 1997.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Goldberg and B. Chen. Collaborative control of robot motion: Robustness to error. In International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2001.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Goldberg, B. Chen, R. Solomon, S. Bui, B. Farzin, J. Heitier, D. Poon, and G. Smith. Collaborative teleoperation via the internet. In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), April 2000.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. Goldberg and R. Siegwart, editors. Beyond Webcams: An Introduction to Online Robots. MIT Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Goldberg, D. Song, Y. Khor, D. Pescovitz, A. Levandowski, J. Himmelstein, J. Shih, A. Ho, E. Paulos, and J. Donath. Collaborative online teleoperation with spatial dynamic voting and a human “tele-actor”. In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May 2002.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Grossi and G. F. Italiano. Efficient cross-trees for external memory. In James Abello and Jeffrey Scott Vitter, editors, External Memory Algorithms and Visualization, pages 87–106. American Mathematical Society Press, Providence, RI, 1999.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Grossi and G. F. Italiano. Revised version of “efficient cross-trees for external memory”. Technical Report TR-00–16, 10 2000.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Halperin, M. Shairir, and K. Goldberg. The 2-center problem with obstacles. Journal of Algorithms, 32, 2002.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.T. Hayes, A. Martinoli, and R.M. Goodman. Swarm robotic odor localization. In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System (IROS), 2001.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    H. Hu, L. Yu, P. Tsui, and Q. Zhou. Internet-based robotic systems for tele-operation. Assembly Automation Journal, 21 (2), 2001.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A.K Jain, M.N. Murty, and P.J. Flyn. Data clustering: A review. ACM Computing Surveys, 31 (3), 1999.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Jia and K. Takase. A corba-based internet robotic system. Advanced Robotics, 15 (6), 2001.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D.E. Johnson. Applied Multivariate Methods for Data Analysis. Duxbury Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. Kapelios, G. Panagopoulou, G. Papamichail, S. Sirmakessis, and A. Tsakalidis. The cross rectangle intersection problem. Computer Journal, 38 (3), 1995.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Kimber, Q. Liu, J. Foote, and L. Wilcox. Capturing and presenting shared multi-resolution video. In SPIE ITCOM 2002. Proceeding of SPIE, Boston, volume 4862, pages 261–271, Jul. 2002.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    P. Ku, K.T. Winther, H.F. Stephanou, and R. Safaric. Distributed control system for an active surface device. In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2001.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Q. Liu, D. Kimber, J. Foote, L. Wilcox, and J. Boreczky. Flyspec: A multiuser video camera system with hybrid human and automatic control. In ACM Multimedia 2002, France, Dec. 2002.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. McDonald, D. Small, C. Graves, and D. Cannon. Virtual collaborative control to improve intelligent robotic system efficiency and quality In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, April 1997.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Megiddo and K.J. Supowit. on the complexity of some common geometric location problems. SI AM J. Comput., 13, 1984.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    H. Moon and J. Luntz. Computing equilibria on superpositions of logarithmic-radial potential fields. In The Workshop on Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics, December, Dec. 2002.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D.M. Mount, R. Silverman, and A.Y. Wu. On the area of overlap of translated polygons. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 64: 353–61, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    E. Mumolo, M. Nolich, and G. Vercelli. Algorithms and architectures for acoustic localization based on microarray in service robotics. In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2000.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S.G. Nash and A. Sofer, editors. Linear and Nonlinear Programming. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 1996.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    L.E. Parker. Distributed algorithms for multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets. Autonomous Robots, 12 (3), 2002.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. Rogoff, E. Matusov, and C. White. Models of teaching and learning: Participation in a community of learners. Oxford, England: Blackwell, 1996.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Safaric, M. Debevc, R. Parkin, and S. Uran. Telerobotics experiments via internet. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 48 (2): 424–31, April 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Sagawa, K. Nishino, M.D. Wheeler, and K. Ikeuchi. Parallel processing of range data merging. In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System (IROS’), 2001.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. C. Veltkamp and M. Hagedoorn. Shape similarity measures, properties, and constructions. In Advances in Visual Information Systems, 4th International Conference, VISUAL 2000, Lyon, France, November 2–4, 2000, Proceedings VISUAL, volume 1929, pages 467–476. Springer, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dezhen Song
    • 1
  • A. Frank van der Stappen
    • 2
  • Ken Goldberg
    • 3
  1. 1.IEOR DepartmentUC BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.ICS DepartmentUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.IEOR and EECS DepartmentUC BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations