Advertisement

Humic Substances. Structural Aspects, and Photophysical, Photochemical and Free Radical Characteristics

Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 1 / 1C)

Abstract

The organic matter of soils, peats and waters consists of a mixture of plant and animal products in various stages of decomposition together with substances synthesized biologically and/or chemically from the breakdown products as well as microorganisms and small animals [3,50]. This organic matter is usually divided into two groups:
  1. (i)

    Nonhumic substances, and

     
  2. (ii)

    humic substances.

     

Keywords

Humic Substance Humic Acid Fulvic Acid Humic Fraction Spin Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adhikari, M., Hazra, G.G.: Humus-metal complex: Spectral studies. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 53, 513 (1976)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, D.W.: Process of humus formation and transformation in soils of the Canadian great plains. J. Soil Sci. 30, 77 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atherton, N.M., Cranwell, P.A., Floyd, A.J., Haworth, R.D.: Humic acid-I. ESR spectra of humic acids. Tetrahedron 23, 1653 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bailly, J., Margulis, H.: Étude de quelques acides humiques sur gel de dextrane. Plant Soil 29, 343 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Banerjee, S.K.: Acidity, quotient values, and metal retention power of humic acids of varying molecular weight. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 27, 38 (1979)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Banerjee, S.K., Mukherjee, S.K.: Physicochemical studies of divalent transitional metal ions with humic and fulvic acids of Assam soil. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 20, 13 (1972)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barton, D.H.R., Schnitzer, M.: A new experimental approach to the humic acid problem. Nature 198, 217 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen, Y., Khan, S.U., Schnitzer, M.: Ultraviolet irradiation of dilute fulvic acid solutions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 292 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen A., Senesi, N., Schnitzer, M.: Information provided on humic substances by E4/E6 ratios. Soil Sci. Am. J. 41, 352 (1977)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen, Y., Senesi, N., Schnitzer, M.: Chemical degradation of humic and fulvic acids extracted from Mediterranean soil. J. Soil Sci. 29, 350 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cheshire, M.V., Cranwell, P.A.: Electron-spin resonance of humic acids from cultivated soils. J. Soil Sci. 23, 424 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choudhry, G.G.: Humic substances. Part I: Structural aspects. Toxicol. Environ. Chem 4, 209 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choudhry, G.G.: Humic substances. Part II: Photophysical, photochemical and free radical characteristics. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 4, 261 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Choudhry, G.G., Roof, A.A.M., Hutzinger O.: Mechanisms in sensitized photochemistry of environmental chemicals. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 2, 259 (1979)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Christman, R.F., Ghassemi, M.: Chemical nature of organic color in water. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 58, 723 (1966)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Datta, C., Ghosh, K., Mukherjee, S.K.: Flourescence excitation spectra of different fractions of humus. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 48, 279 (1971)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dubach, P., Metha, N.C., Jakab, T., Martin, F., Roulet, N.: Chemical investigations on soil humic substances. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 28, 1567 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eltantawy, I.M., Bavrez, M.: Structural study of humic acids by X-ray, electron spin resonance, and infrared spectroscopy. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 903 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Flaig, W.: The chemistry of humic substances. Report of the FAO/IAEA Technical Meeting, 103 (1963)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gjessing, E.T.: Physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic humus. pp. 3, 25, 27, 28, 83. Ann Arbor, MICH.: Ann Arbor Sci Publishers INC. (1976)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grant, D.: Chemical structure of humic substances. Nature 270, 709 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Griffith, S.M., Schnitzer, M.: The alkaline cupric oxide oxidation of humic and fulvic acids extracted from tropical volcanic soils. Soil Sci. 122, 191 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Haan, H. de, Boer, T. de: A study of the possible interactions between fulvic acids, amino acids and carbohydrates from Tjeukemeer (a lake), based on gel filtration at pH 7.0. Water Res. 12, 1035 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Haworth, R.D.: The chemical nature of humic acid. Soil Sci. 111, 71 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khan, S.U.: Distribution and characteristics of organic matter extracted from the black solonetzic and black chernozemic soils of Alberta: The humic acid fraction. Soil Sci. 112, 401 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Khan, S.U., Schnitzer, M.: Permanganate oxidation of humic acids, fulvic acids and humins extracted from Ah horizons of black chernozem, a black solod, and black solonetz soil. Can. J. Soil Sci. 52, 43 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kononova, M.M.: Soil Organic Matter 2nd Ed. pp. 101,104. Oxford: Pergamon Press (1966)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kumada, K., Hurst, H.M.: Green humic acids and its possible origin as fungal metabolite. Nature 214, 631 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lagercrantz, C., Yhland, M.: Photo-induced free radical reactions in the solutions of some tars and humic acids. Acta Chem. Scan. 17, 1299 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lakatos, B., Meisel, J.: Biopolymer-metal complex systems V.PMR investigation of humic substances. Acta Agron. Acad. Sci. Hung. 27, 313 (1978)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lévesque, M.: Fluorescence and gel filtration of compounds. Soil Sci. 113, 346 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Majumdar, S.K., Rao, C.V.N.: Physico-chemical studies of enzyme-degraded fulvic acid. J. Soil Sci. 29, 489 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mathur, S.P.: Infrared evidence of quinones in soil humus. Soil Sci. 113, 136 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maximov, O.B., Glebko, L.I.: Quinoid groups in humic acids. Georderma 11, 17 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Maximov, O.B., Shvets, T.V., Elkiv, Yu.N.: On permanganate oxidation of humic acids. Georderma 19, 63 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Odén, S.: Die huminsäuren. Kolloidchem. Beihefte 11, 75 (1919)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ogner, G., Schnitzer, M.: Chemistry of fulvic acid, a soil humic fraction and its relation to lignin. Can. J. Chem. 49, 1053 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Oka, H., Sasaki, M., Itoh, M., Suzuki, A.: Studies on the structure of peat humic acid. I. Study on the chemical constitution of peat humic acids by high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Nenryo Kyokai-Shi 48/505, 295 (1969)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Posner, A.M.: Importance of electrolyte in the determination of molecular weights by “Sephadex” gel filtration with especial reference to humic acid. Nature 198, 1161 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rashid, M.A., King, L.H.: Molecular weight distribution measurements on humic and fulvic acid fraction from marine clays on the Scotian Shelf. Geochim Cosmochim. Acta 33, 147 (1969)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rashid, M.A., King, L.H.: Chemical characteristics of fractionated humic acids associated with marine sediments. Chem. Geol. 7, 37 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rex, R.W.: Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of stable free radicals in lignins and humic acids. Nature 188, 1185 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Riffaldi, R., Schnitzer, M.: Electron spin resonance spectrometry of humic substances. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 36, 301 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ruggiero, P., Interesse, F.S., Sciacovelli, O.: (1H) and (13C) NMR studies of the importance of aromatic structures in fulvic and humic acids. Geochim. Cosmochim Acta 43, 1771 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sarkanen, K.V., Ludwig, C.H. (eds.): Lignin: Occurrence, formation, structure and reactions. New York: Wiley-Interscience (1971)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sato, O., Kumada, K.: The chemical nature of the green fraction of P type humic acid. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 13, 121 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schnitzer, M.: Characterization of humic constituents by spectroscopy. In. McLaren, A.D. (ed.): Soil biochemistry. Vol. 2, p. 60, New York: Marcel Dekker (1971)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schnitzer, M.: Recent findings on the characterization of substances from soils from widely differing climatic zones. I.A.E.A., Vienna, 117(1977)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schnitzer, M.: Humic Substances: Chemistry and reactions. In Schnitzer, M. and Khan, S.U. (eds.): Soil organic matter. Vol. 8, p. 57. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sci. Publish Co. (1978)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schnitzer, M., Khan, S.U.: Humic substances in the environment. pp.2, 64, 67, 82, 99, 167. New York: Marcel Dekker (1972)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schnitzer, M. Lévesque, M.: Electron spin resonance as a guide to the degree of humification of peats. Soil Sci. 127, 140 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schnitzer, M., Skinner, S.I.M.: Gel filtration of fulvic acid, a soil humic compound. I.A.E.A., Vienna, 41 (1968)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schnitzer, M., Skinner, S.I.M.: The peracetic acid oxidation of humic substances. Soil Sci. 118, 322 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Seal, B.K., Roy, K.B., Mukherjee, S.K.: Fluorescence emission spectra and structure of humic and fulvic acids. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 41, 212 (1964)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Senesi, N., Schnitzer, M.: Effects of pH, reaction time, chemical reduction and irradiation on ESR spectra of fulvic acid. Soil Sci. 123, 224 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Senesi, N., Chen, Y., Schnitzer, M.: Hyperfine splitting in electron spin resonance spectra of fulvic acid. Soil Biol. Biochem. 9, 371 (1977)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Senesi, N., Chen, Y., Schnitzer, M.: The role of free radicals in the oxidation and reduction of fulvic acid. Soil Biol. Biochem. 9, 397 (1977)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Slawinska, D., Slawinski, J., Sarna, T.: The effect of light on the ESR spectra of humic acids. J. Soil Sci. 26, 93 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Slawinski, J., Puzyna, W., Slawinska, D.: Chemiluminescence in the photooxidation of humic acids. Photochem. Photobiol. 28, 75 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Slawinski, J., Puzyna, W., Slawinska, D.: Chemiluminescence during photooxidation of melanins and soil humic acids arising from a singlet oxygen mechanism. Photochem. Photobiol. 28, 459 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Stuermer, D.H., Payne, J.R.: Investigation of seawater and terrestrial humic substances with carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40, 1109 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Swift, R.S., Thornton, B.K., Posner, A.M.: Spectral characteristics of a humic acid fractionated with respect to molecular weight using an agar gel. Soil Sci. 110, 93 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tichy, V.: Biological activity of UV-irradiated humic acids. Trans. 5th Int. Symp. Studies about humus. Prague, 2, 553 (1971)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tollin, G., Reid, T., Steelink, C.: Structure of humic acid. IV. Electron-paramagnetic-resonance studies. Biochim. Biopolys. Acta 66, 444 (1963)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wilson, M.A., Jones, A.J., Williamson, B.: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of humic material. Nature 276, 487 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zepp, R.G., Wolfe, N.L., Baughman, G.L., Hollis, R.C.: Singlet oxygen in natural waters. Nature 267, 421 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ziechmann, W.: Spectroscopic investigations of lignin, humic substances and peat. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 28, 1555 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Environmental and Toxicological ChemistryUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations