Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A New Chance to Prevent Cervical Cancer

  • Bradley J. Monk
  • Ali Mahdavi
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 174)


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. HPV is the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer and dysplasia. Thus, cervical cancer and other HPV-associated malignancies might be prevented or treated by HPV vaccines. Recent research on the safety and efficacy of candidate prophylactic vaccines against HPV have shown very promising results, with nearly 100% efficacy in preventing the development of persistent infections and cervical dysplasia. Questions remain, however, concerning the duration of protection, vaccine acceptability, and feasibility of vaccine delivery in the developing world. Screening recommendations might also be modified based on the longer-term follow-up data and cost-effectiveness considerations, but some level of screening is likely to be required for decades following the implementation of vaccine programs.


Cervical Cancer Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Genital Wart Aluminum Hydroxy Phosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bosch FX, de Sanjose S (2003) Chapter 1: HPVs and cervical cancer: burden and assessment of casuality. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 3–13Google Scholar
  2. Breitburd F, Kirnbauer R, Hubbert NL et al (1995) Immunization with virus-like particles from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can protect against experimental CRPV infection. J Virol 69:3959–3396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004) Genital HPV infection—CDC Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  4. Dubin G (2005) Enhanced immunogenicity of a candidate HPV 16/18 L1 VLP vaccine with novel ASO4 adjuvant in preteens/adolescents. Poster presentation, 45th ICAAC meeting, Washington, DC, December 2005Google Scholar
  5. Dubin G, Colau B, Zahat T, Quint W, Martin MT, Jenkins D (2005) Cross-protection against persistent HPV infection, abnormal cytology and CIN associated with HPV 16 and 18 related HPN types by a HPV 16/18 L1 VLP vaccine. 22nd International Papilloma Conference, Vancouver, Canada, April–May 2005Google Scholar
  6. Embers ME, Budgeon LR, Pickel M et al (2002) Protective immunity to rabbit oral and cutaneous papillomaviruses by immunization with short peptides of L2, the minor capsid protein. J Virol 76:9798–9805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. FDA (2006) FDA licenses new vaccine for prevention of cervical cancer and other diseases in females caused by human papillomavirus. Cited 16 August 2006Google Scholar
  8. Giannini SL, Hanon E, Fourneau MA, Colau B, Suzich J, Losonsky G et al (2005) Superior immune response induced by vaccination with HPV 16/18 L1 VLP formulated with AS04 compared to aluminum salt only formulation. Poster presentation, 4th Annual American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, Baltimore, MD, September 5, 2005Google Scholar
  9. Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler C, Ferris DG, Jenkins D, Schuind A, Zahaf T, Innis B, Naud P, De Carvalho NS, Roteli-Martins CM, Teixeira J, Blatter MM, Korn AP, Quint W, Dubin G (2004) GlaxoSmithKline HPV Vaccine Study Group. Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 364:1757–1765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ho GY, Burk RD, Klein S, Kadish AS, Chang CJ, Palan P et al (1995) Persistent genital human papillomavirus infection as a risk factor for persistent cervical dysplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 87:1365–1371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jansen KU, Shaw AR (2004) Human papillomavirus vaccines and prevention of cervical cancer. Annu Rev Med 55:319–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jemal A, Siegal R, Ward E, Murray T, Xu J, Smigal C A et al (2006) Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 56:106–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kahn JA (2005) Vaccination as a prevention strategy for human papillomavirus-related diseases. J Adolesc Health 37:S10–S16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kirnbauer R, Booy F, Cheng (1992) Papillomavirus L1 major capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like particles that are highly immunogenic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:12180–12184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, Brown DR, Barr E, Alvarez FB, Chiacchierini LM, Jansen KU (2002) Proof of Principle Study Investigators. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. N Engl J Med 347:1645–1651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lowy DR, Frazer IH (2003) Chapter 16: Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 111–116Google Scholar
  17. Mao C, Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, Brown DR, Wiley DJ, Alvarez FB, Bautista OM, Jansen KU, Barr E (2006) Efficacy of human papillomavirus-16 vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 107:18–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Pratt D, Goldenthal K, Gerber A (2001) Preventive HPV vaccines. FDA Advisory Committee, Vaccines and Related Biological Products meeting, November 28–29, 2001Google Scholar
  19. Richardson H, Kelsall H, Tellier P, Voyer H, Abrahamowicz M, Ferenczy A et al (2003) The natural history of type-specific human papillomavirus infections in female university students. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6:485–490Google Scholar
  20. Shaw AR (2005) Human papillomavirus vaccines in development: if they’re successful in clinical trials, how will they be implemented? Gynecol Oncol 99: S246–S248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Skjeldestad FE et al (2005) Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil™) reduces cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 risk. Infectious Disease Society of America 43rd Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, October 7, 2005; Abstract LB-8aGoogle Scholar
  22. Spence A, Franco E, Ferenczy A (2005) The role of human papillomaviruses in cancer: evidence to date. Am J Cancer 4:49–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stanley M (1997) Genital papillomaviruses — prospects for vaccination. Curr Opin Infect Dis 10:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stanley M (2006a) HPV vaccines. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 20:279–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stanley M (2006b) Immune responses to human papillomavirus. Vaccine 30[Suppl 1]:S16–S22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Steinbrook R (2006) The potential of human papillomavirus vaccines. N Engl J Med 354:1109–1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Trottier H, Franco EL (2006) The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection. Vaccine 30[Suppl 1]:S1–S15Google Scholar
  28. Villa LL, Costa RL, Petta CA, Andrade RP, Ault KA, Giuliano AR, Wheeler CM, Koutsky LA, Malm C, Lehtinen M, Skjeldestad FE, Olsson SE, Steinwall M, Brown DR, Kurman RJ, Ronnett BM, Stoler MH, Ferenczy A, Harper DM, Tamms GM, Yu J, Lupinacci L, Railkar R, Taddeo FJ, Jansen KU, Esser MT, Sings HL, Saah AJ, Barr E (2005) Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial. Lancet Oncol 6:271–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zimet GD, Mays RM, Fortenberry JD (2000) Vaccines against sexually transmitted infections promise and problems of the magic bullets for prevention and control. Sex Transm Dis 27:49–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zimet GD, Mays RM, Sturm LA, Ravert AA, Perkins SM, Juliar BE (2005) Parental attitudes about sexually transmitted infection vaccination for their adolescent children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:132–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley J. Monk
    • 1
  • Ali Mahdavi
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Gynecologic Oncology Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of California, IrvineOrangeUSA

Personalised recommendations